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be noticeably smaller than those in bisexual flowers (ovules in Fig. 4A versus Fig. 4B are 10× larger). Ovule surfaces in male flowers have epidermal cells that appeared sunken and exhibit cellular collapse. Ovules show variable stages of arrested

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polymorphism differential transcript-derived fragments (TDFs) between the flower buds of both the male-sterile line Bcajh97-01A and fertile line Bcajh97-01B of chinese cabbage-pak-choi at three different developmental stages. Discussion

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development of flower buds was divided into five stages by diameter (0.3, 0.5, 0.8, 1, and 1.2 cm). Flower buds of each stage were collected for both male-sterile and male-fertile plants. Three biological replicates were collected for the flower bud of each

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female and male flowers, which is different from the traditional chinese bayberry. We observed the external forms of the two flower development at the inflorescence germination, inflorescence elongation, and initial flowering stages. We found that the

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the stage of flower bud differentiation, the flower buds of sterile plants ( Fig. 2 A1–A6) and fertile plants ( Fig. 2 E1–E6) showed no obvious difference in external morphology. The SEM observations showed that the male sterile plants ( Fig. 2 B1 and

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-shaped anthers. ( D–F ) The staminate catkin and male flower cluster at the microsporocyte stage. ( G–I ) The staminate catkin and male flower cluster at the tetrad stage. ( J–L ) The staminate catkin and male flower cluster at the early microspore stage. ( M

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observations. Results and Analysis Observations of jujube morphology during the floral bud stage The flowering period of single jujube flowers began from the appearance of floral buds and lasted until the enlargement of ovaries. Qu et al. (1989) divided the

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in ‘Annabelle’. Mean flower and petal length or width of the hybrids was intermediate between the two parents ( Table 3 ). The flower color of the hybrids was red (4) or blue (10), while the female parent was purple and the male parent was white in

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Gibberellic acid (GA3) promoted maleness and 2-Chloroethyl phosphonic acid (ethephon) promoted femaleness in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) cv Regal 446 seedlings when treated with water, ethephon (250 or 350 ppm) or GA3 (1000 or 2000 ppm) at the l-, 2-, or 3-leaf stage. Seedlings treated with ethephon at all stages produced more female flowers than those with water or GA3 treatments. GA3-treated seedlings produced significantly more male flowers than water treatments, at all developmental stages. The differential response of cucumber seedlings treated at different stages indicated the importance of timing growth regulator applications.

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Abstract

Recommended rates of (2-chloroethyl)phosphonic acid (ethephon) application did not prevent staminate flower formation on summer squash (Cucurbita pepo L.) sufficient to permit hybrid seed production without defloration. The field experiments were conducted in commercial fields in which flower development occurred during warm long day conditions, which promote maleness in squash. A strongly female ‘Cocozelle’ inbred, a strongly male ‘Straightneck’ inbred and a very strongly male ‘Crookneck’ inbred were treated at several seedling stages with rates up to 600 ppm ethephon. Two applications of 400 to 600 ppm ethephon resulted in development of the fewest staminate flowers without significantly reducing seed yield or quality. The ‘Crookneck’ inbred was least responsive to ethephon.

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