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Fruit from 8 `Hayward' kiwifruit vineyards in central California were harvested at 2 week intervals after soluble solids content (SSC) reached 6% and subjected to 4 and 6 months of storage at 0°C in an ethylene free environment. Macro-nutrients were analyzed from leaf and fruit tissues. Leaf petiole N and NO3 --N were 2 to 3 times higher for vines that had softer fruit after long-term storage. Where the correlations were significant, fruit firmness and SSC were correlated negatively with N, P, K, Cl, and N/Ca and positively with Ca and Mg of leaf and fruit tissues. The significance of the correlations depended on the harvest maturity and growing locations. Soil nitrogen application increased Mg and reduced Ca and Cl in lamina but did not influence macro-nutrients in fruit tissues.

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A greenhouse experiment was conducted in Summer and Fall 2011 at the experimental farm of Tuscia University, central Italy, to study the effect of nutrient solution concentration (4, 20, 36, 52, or 68 mequiv·L−1) on biomass production, mineral composition, and concentrations of the major polyphenols in ‘Romolo’ artichoke and ‘Bianco Avorio’ cardoon grown in a floating system. Leaf dry biomass, leaf number, and macroelement concentrations (nitrogen, potassium, calcium, and magnesium) of artichoke and cardoon increased in response to an increase in the nutrient solution concentration, whereas an opposite trend was observed for the total polyphenols, phenolic acids (chlorogenic acid, cynarin, and caffeic acid), and the flavonoid luteolin. Artichoke and cardoon gave maximum biomass production and leaf number at 45 and 54 mequiv·L−1, respectively. Cardoon showed higher biomass and leaf number (average 1.13 kg·m−2 and 14.0 n./plant, respectively) than those observed in artichoke (average 1.07 kg·m−2 and 12.7 n./plant, respectively). The chlorogenic acid, cynarin, caffeic acid, and luteolin concentrations were higher by 204%, 462%, 580%, and 445% in cardoon leaf tissue than in that of artichoke. An improvement of leaf quality (total polyphenols, phenolic acids, and flavonoids) was obtained at the expense of leaf yield through the use of lower fertilizer concentrations in the nutrient solution.

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. Fresh spear yield, carbohydrate, CF, and mineral elements. Fresh spears of commercial standard were cut every day and sampled for quality evaluation. Total soluble sugar (TSS), starch, CF, and macro-mineral content were examined once a week during both

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of macrominerals such as Ca, K, Mg, and P. These minerals are dietary requirements in human nutrition and have various physiological effects. When comparing nutrient contents with the standard values reported for these fruits [ U.S. Department of

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macrominerals, trace elements and pigments content during lettuce ( Lactuca sativa L.) growth: Influence of soil composition Food Chem. 152 603 611 Pope, J. Nizielski, S. McCook, A. 2016 Ch. 14. Trace minerals, p. 310–330. In: Nutrition for a changing world

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