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M. A. L. Smith, J. Reid, A. Hansen, Z. Li, and D. L. Madhavi

Industrial-scale cultivation of plant cells for valuable product recovery (e.g. natural pigments, pharmaceutical compounds) can only be considered commercially-feasible when a fully-automated, predictable bioprocess is achieved. Automation of cell selection, quantification, and sorting procedures, and pinpointing of optimal microenvironmental regimes can be approached via machine vision. Macroscopic staging of Ajuga reptans callus masses (ranging between 2-6 g FW) permitted simultaneous rapid capture of top and side views. Area data used in a linear regression model yielded a reliable, non-destructive estimate of fresh mass. Suspension culture images from the same cell line were microscopically imaged at 4x (with an inverted microscope). Using color machine vision, the HSI (hue-saturation-intensity) coordinates were used to successfully separate pigmented cells and aggregates from non-pigmented cells, aggregates, and background debris. Time-course sampling of a routine suspension culture consistently allowed pigmented cells to be detected, and intensity could be correlated with the degree of pigmentation as verified using spectrophotometer analysis of parallel samples.

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Katie Ellis, Tara Auxt Baugher, and Karen Lewis

to the implementation of technology by early adopters. In the agricultural sector, it can take as long as 15 years before full adoption by stakeholders occurs ( Alston et al., 1995 ). In the realm of automation and precision agriculture, many

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Nicola Grossi, Marco Fontanelli, Elisa Garramone, Andrea Peruzzi, Michele Raffaelli, Michel Pirchio, Luisa Martelloni, Christian Frasconi, Lisa Caturegli, Monica Gaetani, Simone Magni, J. Scott McElroy, and Marco Volterrani

, and combustion engine mowers. Battery mowers are more innovative but not widespread, probably for higher cost and for the limited surface generally mowed (up to 500 to 1000 m 2 ). Autonomous mowers are battery-powered machines (no need of electric cord

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Chieri Kubota, Michael A. McClure, Nancy Kokalis-Burelle, Michael G. Bausher, and Erin N. Rosskopf

used for scion and rootstock. One way to improve the uniformity is the use of automatic sorting machines equipped with a machine vision system as successfully used in Europe and Canada. Another approach is the use of production systems under artificial

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Bizhen Hu, Mark A. Bennett, and Matthew D. Kleinhenz

. Seedling growth is tracked with destructive measures, machine vision systems ( Conrad, 2004 ; Giacomelli et al., 1996 ), and plant image analysis ( Bumgarner et al., 2012 ). Image analysis may complement or reduce the need for destructive sampling if data

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Arnold W. Schumann

-based applicator of foliar sprays to rows of small plants and validated it on tomato and lettuce ( Lactuca sativa ). They developed a machine vision guided spray boom system with servo control for nozzle angle and spray pattern width to spray pesticide and found

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Tomomi Eguchi and Chieri Kubota

the vulnerable scion from coming into direct contact and exposure with the soil, especially when the grafted plants are transplanted by machines in large-scale open-field production. For tomato, while grafting above the rootstock cotyledons could be a