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Joshua K. Craver and Kimberly A. Williams

various areas of greenhouse production, hydroponic production, and general plant nutrition. Table 2. Average percent correct HORT 570 Greenhouse Operations Management student responses to eight lower-order learning (LOL) multiple choice questions

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Marci Spaw*, Kimberly A. Williams, and Laura A. Brannon

This study compared student learning outcomes of two teaching methodologies: a summary lecture and an asynchronous web-based method that included a case study ( followed by an all-class discussion. Twenty-one students taking an upper-level undergraduate course in greenhouse management were randomly split into two groups. Each group experienced both methodologies with presentations designed to provide complimentary information about site planning for protected environment structures; however, the order in which the groups received the methods was reversed. After each presentation, the participants were given an identical quiz (Time 1 and Time 2) comprised of questions that assessed knowledge gained, higher-order learning, and their perception of how confident they would be in solving actual site planning scenarios. Though quiz scores were not different between the two groups after Time 1 or 2, overall quiz scores improved after Time 2 for both groups combined (P = 0.03). When questions were categorized as lower-order vs. higher-order learning, a greater increase in scores was observed in higher-order learning (P = 0.12 vs. P = 0.04, respectively). Although students' perceived confidence was not influenced by which method was received first (P = 0.23), their confidence increased after Time 2 compared to Time 1 (P = 0.07). Rather than one teaching method being superior to the other, this study suggests that it is beneficial to use both. Interestingly, while students overwhelmingly preferred to receive the summary lecture before the web-based method, there was no significant difference in test scores between the two orders, suggesting that neither order offered any advantage.

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David Wees

The Farm Management and Technology Program (FMT) is a 3-year post-secondary vocational agriculture program. FMT students may choose to specialize in horticulture. Since January 1995, all horticulture students have been involved in a hands-on, practical educational experience called “H.O.R.T.” (Horticultural Opportunities for Real Training). The students operate a small horticultural “business.” They must plant, maintain, harvest, and sell several horticultural crops, including greenhouse and field-grown vegetables, apples, berries, and potted flowers. H.O.R.T. lasts two semesters: January through April and September through December. Students may choose to do H.O.R.T. for 2 years to broaden and deepen their horticultural learning. Through active participation in H.O.R.T., students will achieve the technical competencies required by the FMT program and specified by Quebec's ministries of education and agriculture. Each year of H.O.R.T. counts for 5-2/3 credits out of a program total of 90-1/3 credits. The goals of H.O.R.T. are not so much the acquisition of “book knowledge” (lower part of the cognitive domain) as the development of technical skills, planning and decisionmaking abilities, business sense, and proper communication (higher-order cognitive skills as well as psycho-motor and affective skills).

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Marvin P. Pritts and Travis Park

considerable human interaction. For this reason, learning outcomes developed for other scientific disciplines may not be sufficiently broad for a horticulture curriculum. Learning outcomes should incorporate multiple levels of learning, ranging from lower- to

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Kathleen M. Kelley and Elsa S. Sánchez

Two separate consumer-marketing studies were conducted between 30 Oct. and 2 Dec. 2002 to determine consumer awareness and potential demand for edamame [Glycine max (L.) Merrill]. The first study consisted of a sensory evaluation that included 113 participants who tasted and rated three edamame cultivars based on firmness and overall appeal and then ranked the beans in order of preference at The Pennsylvania State University, University Park Campus. To estimate demand, the participants answered questions regarding their likelihood to purchase edamame after the sensory evaluation. The second study, a telephone survey, was administered by a marketing firm to determine consumer awareness of edamame as well as their produce purchasing habits. Responses were collected from 401 consumers within the Metro-Philadelphia area. Consumer reaction to the sensory evaluation was positive, and after reading about the health benefits, a majority of consumers (92%) indicated they would likely purchase edamame and serve it in a meal whereas 89% gave this response after only sampling the edamame beans. When responses were compared among cultivars, overall liking for `Green Legend' (6.29; 1 = extremely dislike; 9 = like extremely) was significantly lower than for `Kenko' (6.84); however, neither cultivar was significantly different from `Early Hakucho' (6.62). Participants also rated `Kenko' as having a firmness that was `just about right'. Verbal comments from participants leaving the evaluation site included interest in purchasing edamame and inquiries as to where it could be purchased in the vicinity of the university. Telephone survey participants also expressed a willingness to purchase edamame and serve it in a meal after hearing about the potential health benefits (66%). Based on consumer responses to selected telephone survey questions, three distinct marketing segments were created. Potential purchasers (58% of participants), consisted of consumers who were more likely to consider the importance of the nutritional content of vegetables they purchased (73%), included the greatest percent of consumers who had purchased soy or soy-based products (70%), and were very likely (51%) and somewhat likely (46%) to eat edamame after learning about the health benefits. The second largest segment of participants characterized as unlikely edamame eaters (22% of participants) consisted of individuals who were very likely (20%) and somewhat likely (43%) to purchase vegetables they had never eaten before if evidence suggested that it might decrease the risk of cancer and/or other diseases. However, within this group, none of the participants were either very likely or somewhat likely to eat edamame after being told about the health benefits. The last group, characterized as requires convincing (20% of participants), consisted of individuals who were the least likely to base produce-purchasing decisions on the nutritional content of vegetables. After learning about health benefits specific to edamame, 8% of these participants were very likely and 48% were somewhat likely to eat edamame. Hence, separate marketing strategies may need to be developed to target these distinct segments based on interest in eating edamame, importance of nutritional information, and current vegetable purchasing habits.

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Gerardo H. Nunez

enhances lower- and higher-order learning ( Craver and Williams, 2014 ) and promotes skill development ( Mahoney et al., 2015 ) in advanced horticulture courses. Experiential learning also aids in recruiting students into subsequent horticulture courses

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Coleman L. Etheredge, Tina M. Waliczek, and Pratheesh Omana Sudhakaran

teaching the course act as the benchmark to determine student success. Examples of objectives include learning production methods of crops within a greenhouse, media selection, irrigation options and design, pest identification and management, the use of

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Sabine R. Green and Geno A. Picchioni

of the course together for a real-world experience is a challenge for the instructor. Engaging a student in a psychomotor task to reinforce what was learned in part of experiential learning is known as cognitive domain ( Newcomb et al., 2004

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mildew and sooty blotch/flyspeck diseases. Final total yields were lower than desired, and insect and disease problems reduced the marketable proportion of the total yield from 29% to 73%. Polyolefin Mulch Systems in Central Ontario Snyder et al. (p. 162

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Min Hyeong Kwon, Jongyun Kim, Changwan Seo, Chiwon W. Lee, Eu Jean Jang, and Woo-Kyun Lee

satisfaction with academic subjects, such as science and mathematics, when they are presented in environmental experience-based learning in gardens compared with in the conventional school setting ( Catsambis, 1995 ; Farenga and Joyce, 1998 ; Simpson and