highly desirable fresh flavor. These cultivars are vegetatively propagated by hardwood or softwood cuttings or by micropropagation, all of which stably conserve the cultivar's genotype. In contrast, the extensive lowbush blueberry fields of Maine, Quebec
Andrew Raymond Jamieson
Samir C. Debnath
Lowbush blueberry ( Vaccinium angustifolium Ait.), a perennial, rhizomatous, cross-pollinated shrub ( Vander Kloet, 1988 ), is a commercially important crop in Maine, Quebec, and the Canadian Atlantic Provinces in North America. The berries are
John M. Smagula and Ilse Fastook
Acommercial lowbush blueberry field with a history of N and P deficiency was used to study the response to several organic fertilizers. Diammonium phosphate (DAP) is the standard fertilizer for correcting N and P deficiencyin non-organic production. At a rate of 67 kg N/ha Rennaisance (8–2–6), Pro-Holly (4–6–4), Pro Grow (5–3–4), Nutri-Wave (4–1–2), or DAP (18–46–0) was applied preemergent to 1.8 × 15 m treatment plots. An unfertilized plot served as the control. Leaf N and P were deficient in the controls. DAP and Pro-Holly raised leaf N to satisfactory levels (1.6%). Only DAP raised leaf P concentrations (0.144%), compared to controls (0.122%). Leaf K was not deficient but was raised by Pro-Holly. Pro-Holly and DAP were equally effective in increasing stem height, branching, branch length, flower bud formation, and yield. Pro-Holly could effectively substitute for DAP in organic wild blueberry production.
D.E. Yarborough and P.C. Bhowmik
Bunchberry (Cornus canadensis L.) is increasing in density and distribution in lowbush blueberry fields (Vaccinium angustifolium Ait.) in Maine and Nova Scota. Replacement series experiments to assess competitive effects of bunchberry were established on native stands of blueberries at Blueberry Hill Farm in Jonesboro, ME in 1986 and 1987. Ten 0.42 M2 quadrats were established on prune and crop fields with cover ratings where c=crop, blueberry and w=weed, bunchberry at 100c/0w, 75c/25w, 50c/50w, 25c/75w, 0c/100w. Dormant blueberry and bunchberry plugs from prune fields were transplanted into five, 0.42 M2 boxes at 16 plugs/box in the above proportions in April 1987 and grown in the greenhouse over the summer in Orono, ME. Regression of individual vs associate yield indicates blueberry and bunchberry equivalent in competitive ability. Blueberries are competitive with bunchberry but in native fields open areas among clones allow faster growing bunchberry to spread without competition.
Daniel J. Bell, Lisa J. Rowland, John Stommel, and Frank A. Drummond
Lowbush blueberry is an important crop in Maine, Maritime Canada, and Quebec. In Maine, the crop is currently harvested on over 24,000 ha ( Yarborough, 2009a ) with a 2008 yield of nearly 40.8 million kilograms and a harvest value of ≈$75 million
Juran C. Goyali, Abir U. Igamberdiev, and Samir C. Debnath
( Ames et al., 1993 ; Neto, 2007 ). Lowbush blueberries ( V. angustifolium Ait.) are native to Newfoundland and Labrador ( Vander Kloet, 1988 ) and their commercial production is localized in eastern Canada and the northeastern United States ( Kalt et
Paul R. Hepler and David E. Yarborough
One hundred lowbush blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium Ait.) clones were randomly sampled from a commercial field to estimate potential productivity. Yield data exhibited a normal distribution ranging from 300 to 17,000 kg·ha-1 with a mean of 7726 kg·ha-1. Commercial use of selected clones or improved cultivars through new plantings, interplanting into existing clones, or replacement of low-yielding clones in native stands and increasing the intensity of field management would increase the yielding potential of native lowbush blueberry fields.
Willy Kalt and Jane E. McDonald
The chemical composition of the lowbush blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium Aiton) cultivars Blomidon, Cumberland, and Fundy were examined at three stages of fruit maturity, before and after refrigerated storage, in a 2-year study. There were differences (P< 0.001) related to maturity and cultivar in berry fresh weight, percentage dry matter, fruit firmness, percentage soluble solids, titratable acidity, and the concentration of sugar, acids, and anthocyanins. Among the nine organic and phenolic acids measured, seven acids varied among the maturity groups and eight varied among the cultivars. Between the 2 years of study there was a 60% difference in total fruit acid content as well as in the relative amounts of each acid. The 2-year mean profile of lowbush blueberry acids was distinctly different from that recently reported for highbush (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) and rabbiteye blueberries (Vaccinium ashei Reade). The level of certain acids as well as the concentration of anthocyanins increased during cold storage. Estimation of sugar concentration by percentage soluble solids overestimated sugar concentration by 3070. Acid measurement by titration underestimated acid content as measured by HPLC by 61%. Results of this study illustrate the variation in the chemical composition of lowbush blueberry fruit among cultivars, maturities, and seasons, and can be used to compare lowbush blueberries with other Vaccinium species.
W. Kalt and J. McDonald
Sugars, pigments, and organic and phenolic acids were examined in three name clones of lowbush blueberries (V. angustifolium Aiton) during two seasons. Between the two seasons, glucose and fructose content was not different, but anthocyanin content differed by 40%. Also, titratable acidity differed by 40%, and total acid content (as measured by HPLC) by 60%. Differences in total acid content between the two seasons could be attributed to changes in some, but not all, acids. Acid content of berries of different maturities suggested that some, but not all, acids decreased as fruit ripened. Although the acid profile was different in the 2 years of the study, overall the lowbush blueberry profile was distinct from that recently reported for highbush and rabbiteye blueberries [Ehlenfeldt et al., HortScience 29(4):321–323]. Succinic acid was absent in lowbush fruit, and there was a higher level of quinic acid than found in highbush or rabbiteye blueberries. Citric acid was present in lowbush fruit at a level intermediate between the other Vaccinium species.
David C. Percival, Dianne Stevens, Glen Sampson, Gary Patterson, and Klaus Jensen
The influence of noninvasive, companion crops on lowbush blueberry production was examined at the Nova Scotia Wild Blueberry Inst. in 1998. A randomized complete-block experimental design was used with four replications and a plot size of 10 × 6 m. Treatments consisted of a control (no companion crop), sawdust, creeping red fescue, hard fescue, chewings fescue, sheeps fescue, birdsfoot trefoil (BFT), and redtop. Measurements of companion crop height, dry weight, and density, and lowbush blueberry vegetative and reproductive data were recorded. In addition, the effects of the companion crops on soil stability and weed pressures were measured at the conclusion of the growing season. Overall, the fescues and BFT established well within the blueberry canopy and in bare areas with plant densities ranging from 960 plants/m2 to 3500 plants/m2, plant dry weights of 7.2 to 11.7 mg/plant, and plant heights of 5.4 to 9.5 cm. The use of the companion crops increased yields with yields from the creeping red and hard fescue treatments being 9.0% and 13% greater, respectively, than the control. The creeping red and hard fescue treatments also significantly reduced weed pressures and increased soil stability. Therefore, using companion crops in lowbush blueberry production appears to be a viable management strategy with future research being required on herbicide use, fertility regimes, and harvestability.