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Low-maintenance turfgrass species that provide acceptable quality with reduced inputs and less mowing are of interest to homeowners and turf managers looking to reduce management costs and environmental impacts. In a recent study, Watkins et al

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to frequent applications of pesticides, fertilizers, and irrigation ( Mackay et al., 2008 ). Moreover, the long growing season in Florida demands grooming, deadheading, and pruning on a regular basis. Low-maintenance roses have gained recent

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Logan, UT. Visual quality ratings. Visual quality ratings were made by one person throughout the experiment ( Morris, 2001 ). A rating of 9 was assigned to the best plot for the evaluation date and a 5 to 6 was considered minimally acceptable for a low-maintenance

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Hundreds of perennial plant species native to the midwestern United States have potential as ornamentals, but information on how best to use such plants in the landscape remains scarce. Many horticulturists are looking for species that perform well under low-maintenance conditions and that also attract and benefit desirable fauna, such as butterflies and birds. While many of our native plants may fit into this category, not all such species will meet aesthetic criteria for home landscapes. Some native species respond to seasonal changes in temperature and rainfall by browning or going dormant. Others have very specific site requirements for moisture, soil, and humidity that may be difficult to meet in an urban landscape, or their size, growth habit, or other characteristics may make them aesthetically undesirable in the typical home landscape. This study evaluated the performance of 67 plant taxa native to the midwestern United States selected for their promising potential in a low-maintenance landscape situation.

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We investigated mixtures of buffalograss [Buchloë dactyloides (Nutt.) Engelm. `Texoka' and `Cody'] and fine fescue species (Festuca rubra ssp. rubra L. `Vista', F. ovina var. glauca Lam. `Minotaur', F. rubra ssp. commutata Gaud. `Jamestown II') or stream-bank wheatgrass [Agropyron riparium Scribn. & Smith `Sodar'; syn. Elymus lanceolatus (Scribn. & Smith) Gould subsp. lanceolatus] as a low-maintenance turf with low irrigation requirements and season-long green color and growth. Buffalograss plots in Logan, Utah, were overseeded with fine fescue and streambank wheatgrass at two seeding rates. Plots of fine fescue, wheatgrass, or buffalograss alone were also established. At 50% evapotranspiration (ETo) replacement, fine fescues dominated the mixtures with no differences due to seeding rates. Wheatgrass mixture plots were unacceptable in quality. Buffalograss control plots and mixtures were similar for turfgrass quality in August, and fine fescue controls and mixtures were similar in spring and fall. The mixtures performed well in the low-maintenance turf situation, but dominance of fine fescue over the buffalograss limits the potential of these specific mixtures.

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Although roses have long been an important landscape plant, there is a growing interest in the use of low-maintenance roses that do not require heavy pruning or spraying. Poulsen Roser Pacific, Inc. of Central Point, Oregon, provided three plants of 48 cultivars for a trial in Stillwater, Oklahoma. The plants were produced in Oregon by grafting cultivars on seedling Rosa multiflora rootstock. Two-year-old plants were shipped bare-root to Stillwater, Oklahoma where they were planted in the field in early April, 2001. The plants were placed in three randomized complete blocks (rows) with 90 cm spacing between plants and 240 cm spacing between rows. The plants were drip irrigated as needed. During the 2002 growing season the roses were evaluated weekly for flower number, black spot, and overall quality. Four rose cultivars from Poulsen's Town and Country® series of landscape roses, Martha's Vineyard™ (`Poulans'), followed by Madison™ (`Poulrijk'), Kent™ (`Poulcov'), and Tumbling Waters™ (`Poultumb'), had the highest average flower number. Martha's Vineyard™, Kent™, and Tumbling Waters™ also rated highest among the cultivars tested for overall plant quality and black spot resistance. Other roses in the top grouping (Waller-Duncan K-ratio t test) for black spot resistance and overall quality were: Ragtime™ (`Poultieme', a climber from the Courtyard® series), Sophia Renaissance® (`Poulen002', Renaissance® series), Nashville™ (`Poulbico', Town and Country® series), Redwood™ (`Poultry', National Parks® series), Julia Renaissance® (`Poulheart', Renaissance® series), Santa Barbara™ (`Pouloesy', Town and Country® series), and Everglades™ (`Poulege', National Parks® series).

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Fragaria chiloensis (Linnaeus) Is a viable. low maintenance alternative to groundcovers currently available in the ornamental landscape industry. There is considerable genetic variability within this specks for leaf morphology, growth and flowering habits as well as drought tolerance. Clones collected from 11 coastal sites in CA and OR were compared for drought tolerance after two Imposed water stress\recovery cycles. Predawn water potential, gas exchange, chlorophyll (chl) content, fourth derivative spectroscopy, carbon isotope discrimination, and total biomass production were evaluated and significant clonal differences were observed.

Predawn water potentials after the first stress cycle ranged from -35.0 MPa to -6.5 MPa. Clones I05, DNT and G19 had highest predawn water potentials and gas exchange rates after both stress cycles. In the control group, I05 and DNT had higher levels of chl a, chl b, total chl and chl a\b. After the first stress cycle, clones DNT and I05 had the highest chl a\b ratio, however, after the second stress event there were no differences In any chl parameters. Varying adaptive abilities observed may suggest differential use in the landscape.

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As water resources in many areas, but particularly the western United States, become more limiting and are sought by competing interests, there is a need for turfgrass species that require less irrigation for low-maintenance situations ( Feldhake

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Prairie junegrass or junegrass ( Koeleria macrantha ), a cool-season, perennial, short-grass prairie species, is native to North America ( Robertson, 1974 ). It possesses many characteristics ideal for low-maintenance turfgrass use such as a slow

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Twelve shrub rose cultivars were evaluated for pest resistance in the southern Blue Ridge mountains under high humidity and rainfall (1.34 inches per week average during the 1994 and 1995 growing seasons). `Albo plena', `Blanc Double de Coubert', `Fru Dagmar Hastrup', `Roseraie de l'Hay', R. rugosa `Alba', `Sarah van Fleet', and `Topaz Jewel' were highly resistant to black spot and Cercospora sp. leaf spot. `Alba Meidiland', `Linda Campbell', `Pink Meidiland', and `Scarlet Meidiland' were susceptible, while `Bonica' displayed intermediate resistance to both diseases. `Sarah van Fleet' foliage and the flowers of `Albo plena', `Blanc Double de Coubert', and R. rugosa `Alba' were damaged by Japanese beetle feeding. No other cultivars were damaged by Japanese beetles.

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