Use of sprays to sanitize and treat apple (Malus ×domestica) slices helps to reduce the potential for cross-contamination that can occur when treatments are done in dip tanks. This research examined several factors that may affect the efficacy of spray treatments: 1) spray volume; 2) efficacy of spray application of anti-browning solution (ABS) compared with dipping; 3) effect of slice density during spraying; and 4) effect of the addition of an antimicrobial compound, vanillin, on microbiologically associated browning. Low-volume sprays (36-50 mL·kg-1 slices) of ABS gave maximal control of browning and this was equivalent to the control afforded by a 2-minute dip in the ABS. Spray application resulted in significant reduction in incidence and severity of microbiologically associated “secondary browning” as compared with dip application. However, if more than one layer of slices were present on the support mesh during the spray treatment, then secondary browning increased. This was attributed to potential cross-contamination between layers of apples in the spray treatment. Addition of vanillin into the ABS resulted in a 50% reduction of the incidence of “secondary browning.” Low-volume spray applications of ABS can be managed such that the microbiologically associated “secondary browning” is much lower than possible with dip application.
Peter M.A. Toivonen and Pascal Delaquis
Cindy B.S. Tong, Hsueh-Yuan Chang, Jennifer K. Boldt, Yizhou B. Ma, Jennifer R. DeEll, Renae E. Moran, Gaétan Bourgeois, and Dominique Plouffe
similar cortical browning disorders, called “internal breakdown,” “internal browning,” and “low-temperature breakdown,” have been described for other apple cultivars ( Faust and Williams, 1969 ; Smock, 1977 ; Meheriuk et al., 1994 ), but it is not clear
Jennifer R. DeEll and Geoffrey B. Lum
tissue, and it is typically not visible from the external surface ( DeEll and Ehsani-Moghaddam, 2012 ; DeEll et al., 2007 ; Meheriuk et al., 1994 ; Watkins and Liu, 2010 ). The onset of flesh browning in apples is postulated to be associated with low
Renae E. Moran, Bryan J. Peterson, Gennaro Fazio, and John Cline
.4013, G.5087, and V.6 was lower than in ‘M.7’. The TI ranged from a high of −29 °C in ‘G.41’ to a low of −40 °C in ‘M.9’, G.3902, and G.4292, but did not vary among genotypes. Fig. 6. Cambial browning in 2-year-old shoot pieces in seven apple rootstock
Elena de Castro, Bill Biasi, Elizabeth Mitcham, Stuart Tustin, David Tanner, and Jennifer Jobling
< 10 °C) during 50 DAFB was highest in 2002, corresponding with high FB incidence; however, in 2004, another season with high FB incidence, low-temperature exposure was very low. Table 4. Relationship between browning severity of Pink Lady apple
P.M.A. Toivonen and C.R. Hampson
. The fresh-cut apple industry generally has a minimum firmness standard of 14 lbf, below which fresh-cut apple slices show increased susceptibility to browning and decay (P.M.A. Toivonen, unpublished data). The firmness values for ‘Granny Smith’ apples
Tolerance of apples to low levels (0.5%) of O2 was cultivar-dependent. `Spartan' (SP), `Delicious' (RD), and `Golden Delicious' (GD) apples (Malus domestica Borkh.) held for 7 months in 1.0% O2 (with 1.5% CO2) at 0.5C, plus ≈2 months in air at 0C and 7 days in air at 20C, were similar to those held in 1.5% O2. However, incidence of skin injury in fruit held in 0.5% O2 was very high in SP (purple-brown discoloration), low in RD (purple-brown discoloration), but only negligible in GD (lesions). Skin discoloration in SP and RD developed rapidly in air at 20C. Holding in 0.5% O2 improved retention of flesh firmness and juice acidity in GD and, under certain conditions, reduced scald in RD and SP, delayed yellowing in GD, but increased flesh breakdown in SP, flesh browning and alcohol flavor in SP and RD, and core browning in RD.
C. Stevens, C. L. Wilson, J. Y. Lu, V. A. Khan, E. Chalutz, M. K. Kabwe, Z. Haung, S. Droby, and L. Pusey
Low doses of ultraviolet light (254nm UV–C) irradiation reduced postharvest rots of pome, stone and citrus fruits. Brown rot (Monilinia fructicola) of `Elberta' and `Loring' peaches was significantly reduced by UV–C. Alternaria rot (Alternaria spp.) and bitter rot (Colletotrichum spp.) the principal storage rots of `Golden Delicious apples showed significant reduction following UV–C treatment. Further application of UV–C was effective in controlling green mold rot (Penicillium digitatum) of `Dancy' Tangerines and `Marsh Seedless' grapefruits, stem end rot (Alternaria citri), as well as sour rot (Geotrichum candidum) of `Dancy' tangerines after irradiation.
Laura Lehman-Salada and George M. Greene II
In both experiments. 20-apple samples from 6 commercial orchards were harvested and stored in 208 liter containers at 0C for 4, 6, and 8 months. Additional samples were removed from CA and held at 0C for 14 days before evaluation. Gas composition was measured and controlled 6 times per day using automatic control equipment.
In the first experiment, samples were stored at constant 0.0% CO2 and one of three O2 regimes (constant 2.0%. 0.5 rising to 3.5%. or 3.5% falling to 0.5% O2). Apples stored at 3.5% falling to 0.5% O2 during the storage period were softer than apples held at constant 2.0% or those held at 0.5% rising to 3.5% O2 during the storage period. Variable O2 concentrations did not influence weight loss during storage and insignificant scald, flesh browning, core browning, rot, and low 02 injury were observed.
In the second experiment, samples were stored at constant 2.0% O2 and one of three CO2 regimes (constant 0%, constant 5%. or 0% rising to 6% CO2). Constant 5% or rising CO2 conditions did not significantly influence flesh softening or weight loss during storage. Negligible CO2 injury was observed.
Storage of `McIntosh' apples (Malus domestica Borkh.) in high humidity (94% to 100% RH) or in 0.5% CO2 plus 1.0% O2 at 3C (LO) atmospheres decreased resistance to ethane diffusion relative to fruit stored in low humidity (75% RH) or in 5.0% CO2 plus 3.0% O2 at 3C (SCA), respectively. Loss of fruit firmness of SCA- or LO-stored `McIntosh' apples, determined immediately after storage or after 7 days at 20C, decreased with increased storage humidity in each of three crop years. Storage humidity did not significantly affect (P = 0.05) fruit titratable acids or soluble solids contents. High storage humidity (96% to 100% RH) generally increased the incidence of senescent disorders (consisting of senescent breakdown and senile brown core) in SCA-stored fruit, while humidities of 92% to 100% RH decreased the incidence of low-O2 injuries (epidermal bluing and cortical browning) in LO-stored fruit. Senescent disorders were found in SCA-stored fruit, but not in LO-stored fruit. The incidence of decay was not significantly affected by either storage humidity or atmosphere.