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reallocation in existing tissues or nutrient uptake ( Bryla and Strik, 2015 ). Nutrients are also lost when fruit are harvested, leaves senesce, and plants are pruned. Gains and losses in nutrients have tended to follow the same pattern of DW in blueberry and

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lost through the root zone to achieve water quality and conservation goals. These losses are greatly increased after high rainfall events. It should be noted that nutrient movement within and below the root zone is a continuous process, and depending on

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flowers, including carnations, are the result of stomatal water loss that gradually exceeds the rate of water uptake through the xylem vessels in the cut-stem ends ( Mattos et al., 2017 ; van Doorn, 2012 ). The stomata of higher plants occur mainly on the

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and sod properties, large, volume-based rates could contribute to nonpoint source losses of dissolved mineral nutrients in runoff during production and after transplanting of sod. Under field conditions, runoff loss of total dissolved P (TDP) from

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, conventionally applied WSFs ( Kaminiski et al., 2004 ; Obreza and Sartain, 2010 ) are prone to offsite movement through leaching and surface runoff during intense precipitation or excess irrigation ( Easton and Petrovic, 2004 ; Saha et al., 2007 ). Loss of

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billion tons of food loss every year (Porat et al., 2018). For apple fruit, estimates include 8.6% fresh apples lost at retail and 20% lost at the consumer level in the United States ( Buzby et al., 2011 ). These estimates suggest a highly inefficient use

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Termination of vase life for cut flowers is characterized by wilting associated with an imbalance developing between water uptake through xylem conduits in stems and water loss through stomata and other structures on leaves and other organs. To

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the rate of seed dormancy loss as well as seed viability loss in a number of species ( Baskin and Baskin, 1979 ; Bazin et al., 2011 ; Commander et al., 2009 ; Foley, 1994 , 2008 ; Leopold et al., 1988 ; Probert, 2000 ; Steadman et al., 2003

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uptake by container-grown nursery plants has primarily focused on N because it is the most important nutrient for plant growth ( Millard, 1996 ); and losses from production systems impact environmental quality ( Alt, 1998 ). Plants require other nutrients

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), which release nutrients slowly over time somewhat in accordance with plant growth and uptake, is a strategy currently implemented by many producers to reduce nutrient losses from soilless substrates in container production ( Lea-Cox and Ristvey, 2003

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