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Wei-Ting Tsai and Chien-Young Chu

seeds germinated on the walls of the vessel where nutrient liquid remained and seeds germinated faster than those on a solid medium. Given that in vitro liquid culture has been used successfully to cultivate a number of important nonorchids such as

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Ayse Tascan, Jeff Adelberg, Mevlut Tascan, Agnes Rimando, Nirmal Joshee, and Anand K. Yadav

agar to gelrite ( Franck et al., 2004 ), or switching agar to liquid may result in more hyperhydric plantlets. Different physical interventions have been explored to prevent hyperhydricity in liquid culture. For instance, sealing the culture vessels

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Choun-Sea Lin, Krishnan Kalpana, Wei-Chin Chang, and Na-Sheng Lin

medium. Multiple shoot proliferation. To compare liquid culture [no shaking and shaking (orbital, 120 rpm)] and culture on semisolid medium for their ability to induce shoot proliferation, we cultured three clusters of shoots, each having three to

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S.M. Eichorst, R.B. Rogers, and M.A.L. Smith

Use of a liquid media during micropropagation has promoted improved proliferation and rooting response in several species. In this experiment, a double phase system (a combination of liquid and agar solidified medium) was applied to three cultivars of miniature roses (Rosa chinensis var. minima) to determine the effects on shoot quality and subsequent ex-vitro rooting. Applications of liquid media to the surface of agar solidified media were made at 0, 2, and 4 weeks. Evaluation via computerized image analysis after eight weeks of proliferation revealed equal or greater values for shoot length, area and weighted density (equivalent to fresh weight) for cultures receiving overlay, regardless of timing, compared to the solid media control. Additionally, application of a liquid overlay improved rooting response by up to 20% over the control and resulted in a tendency for a greater number of roots of greater length and area than the treatment without liquid media overlay.

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Jeffrey Adelberg, Maria Delgado, and Jeffery Tomkins

Two tetraploid and two diploid varieties of daylily were micropropagated on a shaker in MS liquid medium containing high and low sugar levels (3% and 6% sucrose), 2 BA levels (0.32 and 3.2 μm), at two densities (57 and 171 explants/L), in the presence (0.32 μm) and absence of ancymidol. Biomass and media use were partitioned for the four genotypes and 32 cultural conditions with three replications (4 × 2 × 2 × 2 × 2 × 3). Genotype greatly effected f resh weight, dry weight, media, sugar and water use, but ploidy had little effect. Vessels at high density (171 explants/L) produced 1.8× more fresh weight, 1.4× more dry weight, used 1.6× more media and sugar than low density (57 explants/L). Plants from low density were 1.7× larger, 2× greater dry weight, and used 2× more sugar and media, than from high-density culture (per explant). Doubling the initial sugar level increased dry weight and sugar use 1.3×. There was a linear relation between sugar residual and percentage of dry weight (R 2 = 0.55, P < 0.0001), where a 1% increase in °Brix raised percentage of dry weight 1.8 units over the range of 9% to 22%. Ancymidol and BA had less effect on plant size, sugar and media use than genotype or plant density. Greenhouse survival was reduced by including ancymidol (90% to 30%) and increased BA concentration (85% to 35%). Lab plant density and initial sugar concentration had no apparent effect on greenhouse growth. `Barbara Mitchell' had greatest mass, used more sugar and media than the other varieties, yet had least greenhouse growth. Nutrient use with `Barbara Mitchell' was linearly correlated (R 2>80%) to lab growth for seven of 12 ions. P and Fe supply was inadequate to support optimal growth, as indicated by low residual in media (>1% of MS formulation).

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Sonja L. Maki, Maria Delgado, and Jeffrey W. Adelberg

The gibberellin biosynthesis inhibitor, ancymidol, was used during micropropagation of Hosta `Blue Vision'. Shoot growth and bud division was monitored every 2 weeks over an 8-week period in media containing 1 μm benzyladenine (BA) and various levels of ancymidol (0, 0.1, 0.32, 1 and 3.2 μm). Ancymidol prolonged bud division from 2 to 6 weeks and increased the total number of buds produced. Shoots grown in medium containing ancymidol had greater fresh weight, shorter-broader leaves and less dry weight than those grown without ancymidol. Reduced dry weight of buds grown in the presence of ancymidol was correlated to the depletion of sugars in the medium. A bioassay using `Saturn' tall rice revealed that ancymidol was active for the entire 8-week culture period.

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Aish Muhammad, Hamid Rashid, Iqbal Hussain, and S.M. Saqlan Naqvi

higher rates of multiplication of ‘Basrai’. Moreover, the effect of liquid and solid media on the multiplication rate was studied. Materials and Methods Cultures were started from 4-week-old field-grown sword suckers of ‘Basrai’. These suckers were

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Chia-Yun Ko, Tsai-Yun Lin, Chin-Wen Ho, and Jei-Fu Shaw

species, yet only a few studies of C. follicularis tissue culture have been reported. In the propagation of the C. follicularis explants, half-strength liquid LS medium resulted in a 10-fold increase in a 6-month period ( Adams et al., 1979 ). The LS

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Tao Dong, Fang-cheng Bi, Yong-hong Huang, Wei-di He, Gui-ming Deng, Hui-jun Gao, Ou Sheng, Chun-yu Li, Qiao-song Yang, Gan-jun Yi, and Chun-hua Hu

transferred to liquid selection medium and incubated in the dark at 27 ± 1 °C with shaking at 100 rpm for three generations. The cultures were subcultured once every 3 weeks and were regarded as the first, second, and third generations. Selection was performed

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Juan Bernardo Pérez-Hernández and María José Grajal-Martín

is routinely carried out on solid medium, although culture under liquid medium agitation has been shown to improve elongation of underdeveloped somatic embryos ( DeWald et al., 1989b ). With regard to sucrose content, different concentrations have