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C. Michael Bourget

expenses (electricity use as well as replacement lamps). Naturally, advances in lighting technology are of great interest to the CEA community for these very reasons. Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are the most recent lighting technology to enter the CEA

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Gary W. Stutte

Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are solid-state semiconductor devices that produce narrow spectrum light when voltage is applied. The use of LEDs in photobiology research was reported in the 1980s and the concept of using LEDs for plant lighting was

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Liang Zheng, Huaming He, and Weitang Song

765 D’Souza, C. Yuk, H.G. Khoo, G.H. Zhou, W. 2015 Application of light-emitting diodes in food production, postharvest preservation, and microbiological food safety Compr. Rev. Food Sci. Food Saf. 14 719 740 Davis, P.A. Burns, C. 2016 Photobiology in

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Hyeon-Hye Kim, Gregory D. Goins, Raymond M. Wheeler, and John C. Sager

a trade name or proprietary product does not constitute an endorsement, guarantee, or warranty by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Quantum Devices, Inc. (Barneveld, Wis.) holds a patent (No. 5,012,609) on light-emitting diodes as an

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Neil C. Yorio, Gregory D. Goins, Hollie R. Kagie, Raymond M. Wheeler, and John C. Sager

either Dynamac Corporation or National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Quantum Devices, Inc., Barneveld, Wis., holds a patent (no. 5,012,609) on light-emitting diodes as an illumination source for plant growth. The cost of publishing this paper was

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Claudia Elkins and Marc W. van Iersel

polystyrene, and an opaque black curtain was hung between the racks to prevent light pollution between neighboring sections. In each section, two white light-emitting diode (LED) light bars (SPYDRx Plus with PhysioSpec indoor spectrum; Fluence Bioengineering

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Gioia Massa, Thomas Graham, Tim Haire, Cedric Flemming II, Gerard Newsham, and Raymond Wheeler

cycle ( Morrow, 2008 ; Yeh and Chung, 2009 ). Light-emitting diodes are easily configured into different form factors and, for example, have been used to provide intracanopy lighting where whole plant canopies can be irradiated from both above and from

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Tessa Pocock

Increases in shoot tissue pigments, glucosinolates, and mineral elements in sprouting broccoli after exposure to short-duration blue light from light emitting diodes J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 138 31 37 Lau, O.S. Deng, X.W. 2010 Plant hormones signaling

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Joshua K. Craver, Joshua R. Gerovac, Roberto G. Lopez, and Dean A. Kopsell

. Fig. 1. Spectral quality delivered from sole-source light-emitting diode arrays with light ratios (percent) of red:blue 87:13 (R 87 :B 13 ), red:far-red:blue 84:7:9 (R 84 :FR 7 :B 9 ), or red:green:blue 74:18:8 (R 74 :G 18 :B 8 ) at a total photon flux

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Heidi Marie Wollaeger and Erik S. Runkle

Light-emitting diodes are well suited for commercial plant production because of their high energy efficiency and spectral specificity ( Mitchell et al., 2012 ). When operated at favorable temperatures, well-constructed LEDs have an operating