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Ignasi Iglesias and Simó Alegre

objective was to determine the effect of covering the orchard floor with different types of reflective film on orchard temperature, skin-color development, fruit quality, light canopy distribution, and crop profitability. Materials and methods Plant material

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Ray A. Allen and Curt R. Rom

Light distribution in two cultivars on three dwarfing rootstocks in three high-density apple tree training systems was measured in the sixth leaf beginning at full bloom and continuing through the season. Training system had a significant effect on light penetration into the lowest point of the canopy (measured at 0.5 m), with the slender spindle being significantly darker than either the central leader or the vertical axis, although all three systems were below the threshold value of 30% full sun (FS) needed to maintain productivity for most of the season. Cultivar had no significant effect; however, trees of both `Jonagold' and `Empire' fell below 20% FS early in the season and remained there until late in the season. Rootstock had the greatest effect, with trees on M9 and M26 being significantly darker in the lower canopy than trees on Mark. Trees on M26 and M9 fell below 10% FS early in the season and remained there, while trees on Mark never fell below 20% FS.

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Jon M. Clements and Joseph F. Costante

A randomized complete block study was initiated in 1991 in a fifteen year old `Rogers Red McIntosh'/9-106 interstem orchard to investigate the effect of three dormant pruning regimes- an unpruned control, selectively thinned, and heavily structured or “tiered”, on tree canopy light distribution and fruit and spur quality. Fruit quality parameters being measured for the 1991 and 1992 harvests include skin color (% red blush), weight (g.), flesh firmness (kg.), soluble solids concentration (% Brix), and packout (% fancy grade). Pruning treatment effect on fruit spur quality, in terms of spur bud diameter (mm.) and spur efficiency (leaf dry weight/spur), is also being evaluated at time of harvest. Light distribution is being measured (% PAR, umol/s/m2.) within the tree canopy from petal fall through harvest. Preliminary findings indicate there is a difference in tree canopy light distribution and some fruit quality measurements, including red skin color, between pruning regimes. Complete analysis of results from 1991 will be presented.

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Celina Gómez and Cary A. Mitchell

-wire greenhouse-grown crops by delivering uniform light distribution along vertical leaf profiles. Most research evaluating intracanopy SL uses ICL as part of hybrid lighting ( Dueck et al., 2012 ; Gunnlaugsson and Adalsteinsson, 2006 ; Hao et al., 2012

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Pamela C. Korczynski, Joanne Logan, and James E. Faust

The daily light integral (DLI) is a measurement of the total amount of photosynthetically active radiation delivered over a 24-hour period and is an important factor influencing plant growth over weeks and months. Contour maps were developed to demonstrate the mean DLI for each month of the year across the contiguous United States. The maps are based on 30 years of solar radiation data for 216 sites compiled and reported by the National Renewable Energy Lab in radiometric units (watt-hours per m-2·d-1, from 300 to 3,000 nm) that we converted to quantum units (mol·m-2·d-1, 400 to 700 nm). The mean DLI ranges from 5 to 10 mol·m-2·d-1 across the northern U.S. in December to 55 to 60 mol·m-2·d-1 in the southwestern U.S. in May through July. From October through February, the differences in DLI primarily occur between the northern and southern U.S., while from May through August the differences in DLI primarily occur between the eastern and western U.S. The DLI changes rapidly during the months before and after the vernal and autumnal equinoxes, e.g., increasing by more than 60% from February to April in many locations. The contour maps provide a means of estimating the typical DLI received across the U.S. throughout the year.

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D.C. Elfving, I. Schechter, R.A. Cline, and W.F. Pierce

Mature `Macspur McIntosh'/MM.106 apple trees (Malus domestica Borkh.) trained to the central-leader (CL) tree form were converted to the palmette-leader (PL) tree form in 1987 by removal of east- and west-oriented scaffolds in the upper canopy. Control trees were pruned to maintain the CL form. Dormant pruning in subsequent seasons maintained either tree form. No summer pruning was done. Canopy light levels along horizontal transects 1 m above the soil and vertical transects, both through the center of the canopy, were unaffected by tree form or transect direction. Yields were significantly lower for PL trees in 1987 and 1989, while yield efficiency was reduced in PL trees in all 3 years. Fruit size, trunk cross-sectional area growth, and foliar macronutrient content were unaffected by tree form. Fruit color development in both the upper and lower halves of the canopy was not influenced by tree form during the study.

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D.C. Elfving, I. Schechter, R.A. Cline, and W.F. Pierce

Mature `Macspur McIntosh'/MM.106 trees trained to the CL tree form were converted to the PL tree form in 1987 by removal of east- and west-oriented upper scaffold limbs. Control trees were pruned to maintain the CL form. Dormant pruning in later years maintained either tree form. No summer pruning was used in this study. Canopy light levels along horizontal transects at one m above the soil and vertical transects, both through the center of the canopy, were unaffected by tree form or transect direction. Yields were significantly lower for PL trees in 1987 and 1989, while yield efficiency was reduced in PL trees in all 3 years. Fruit size, trunk cross-sectional area, and foliar macro-nutrient content were unaffected by tree form during this study. Fruit color development in both the upper and lower halves of the canopy was uninfluenced by tree form.

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Liang Zheng, Qi Zhang, Kexin Zheng, Shumei Zhao, Pingzhi Wang, Jieyu Cheng, Xuesong Zhang, and Xiaowen Chen

greenhouse cover, light-diffusing cover scatters a certain fraction of the transmitted direct light into diffuse light, thus potentially improving the uniformity of spatial and temporal light distributions and increasing the radiation efficiency of the crops

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Ruining Li, Jiahuan Long, Yongzhe Yan, Jiaming Luo, Zhigang Xu, and Xiaoying Liu

-h light/16-h dark photoperiod, day/night temperatures of 22 ± 2 °C/18 ± 2 °C, a relative humidity of 75 ± 5%, and a CO 2 concentration identical to that of the outdoor atmosphere. Fig. 1. Spectral distribution of white, blue, and red lights. PPFD

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Miguel Urrestarazu, Cinthia Nájera, and María del Mar Gea

A and B and were recorded with the UPRtek MK350S LED Meter (Miaoli County, Taiwan). Fig. 1. ( A ) Spectral photon flux distributions for 380 to 780 nm lighting treatment for the white light-emitting diode (LED) lamps used as a control and ( B ) the