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quantifying the environmental impact of a product or service that has been accepted in the scientific community is life cycle assessment (LCA). The initial driving force for the development of such tools was the environmental regulations by the U

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expressed as the net pounds or kilograms of CO 2 (or equivalence of other greenhouse gases such as CH 4 and N 2 O) released per functional unit of the product. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is an approach that analyzes the flows associated with the whole

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equivalent. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a tool used to quantify the environmental impact of products or services. LCA is a systematic process accounting for environmental impacts of interrelated input components and processes of a product or practice

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regulatory adherence ( Rankin et al., 2011 ). Measuring the sustainable nature of manufactured products is challenging, and live goods such as plants can be particularly perplexing; however, tools such as life cycle assessment (LCA) have been used

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assessment is a tool that has been used to evaluate the environmental portion of the triple-bottom-line of products from cradle to grave or defined subsets of their life cycle. Greenhouse gas emissions and the subsequent CF have been reported for nursery crop

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source) is a better indicator of net contribution to GHG ( Kerckhoffs and Reid, 2007 ; OECD, 1999 ), earlier attempts of life cycle assessment (LCA) and carbon footprinting of fruit production systems have not considered carbon balance as a result of

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impacts ( Southern Nursery Association, 2013 ) while sustaining or increasing profits ( Hall, 2010 ). Life cycle assessment is a tool used to analyze the sustainable nature of production system components from cradle to grave or defined subsets of their

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for the assessment of the life cycle greenhouse gas emissions of goods and services. BSI British Standards (Publicly Available Specification) PAS 2050:2011 Burnham, A. Wang, M. Wu, Y. 2006 Development and applications of GREET 2.7–The transportation

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and product inputs for a 5-cm-caliper, field-grown, spade-dug redbud using international life cycle assessment standards and databases and the TRACT2.1 ( Bare, 2011 ) calculation method in a life cycle assessment software package, SimaPro (PRé North

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need more information about the potential impact of specific production protocols to make informed decisions ( Ingram and Hall, 2015b ). Life cycle assessment is a tool that has been used to characterize the environmental impact of products from cradle

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