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Lemon is a highly acidic citrus fruit as a result of its high citric acid content (≈5%). As a result of its high level of vitamin C, it is used as an antioxidant to prevent browning in food and was used by the British Navy as an antiscurvy

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‘Villa franca’ lemons are visually similar to ‘Eureka’, which is the most important cultivated lemon variety worldwide; they have a smooth but thick rind, medium-large fruit, and an ovate-oblong shape ( Ladaniya, 2008 ; Sinclair, 1984 ). Lemons set

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This research was supported by the Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, and approved for publication as Journal Series no. R-09951. The authors thank Dr. Glenn Wright (Univ. of Arizona) for assistance with lemon crosses conducted in Arizona, and

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In accordance with the currently approved Australian citrus disinfestation protocol for export to Japan, degreened `Eureka' lemons [Citrus limon (L.) Burm.] were cold-stored for 2 weeks at 1C. Following cold treatment, fruit were stored at 5C for 3 weeks, then transferred to 20C for an additional week to simulate transportation and handling. Fruit harvested early in the season were more susceptible to chilling injury than fruit harvested later, with 62% having lesions >1 cm2 after 2 weeks at 1C. Most of the chilling injury occurred after subsequent storage (at 5C) rather than immediately after the 1C treatment. Injury was different from surface pitting or oleocellosis, manifesting as large uniform surface lesions 2 to 3 cm in diameter that rapidly discolored following storage at 20C. Although the oil glands were flattened, the collenchyma layer immediately above the oil gland remained intact. Cellular discoloration was localized around the oil gland, possibly indicating a lateral release of oil gland contents. Nondegreened late-season fruit developed substantially lower levels of chilling injury.

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Lemon is an economically important crop widely grown in southern Italy and especially in Sicily, the first Italian region for lemon production ( Cottone et al., 1996 ; Forte, 1999 ). While in the other principal producing countries one or few

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Some lemon [Citrus limon (L.) Burm. f.] cultivars present compatibility problems with commonly used citrus rootstocks. Therefore, assessing trueness-to-type of lemon mother trees is needed by growers. Morphological differentiation of lemon cultivars is not precise because they present high phenotypic plasticity. The objective of this paper is to contrast the discriminatory ability of several molecular marker systems for lemon. Three marker types were used: randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSR) and inter-retrotransposon amplified polymorphism (IRAP). The molecular variability found in C. limon is larger than that reported for C. clementina, another vegetatively propagated citrus species. This difference in variability content might be explained by differences in the distribution and age of both cultures. Similar to clementines, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) markers using primers anchored in copya-like retrotransposons resulted in a higher rate of polymorphisms (36.4%) than did primers of random sequence (27.3%) or those anchored at simple sequence repeats (0%), indicating a higher molecular variability at the locations where these retrotransposons inserted. Primers anchored in gypsy-like retroelements did not yield polymorphisms. Lemon cultivars from important groups such as `Eureka', `Fino', and `Verna' could be distinguished using all polymorphisms.

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display the power of the Persian ruler and it slowly penetrated into the Jewish religion and symbolic world; (2) the citron was common in important gardens in antiquity and was considered an elite product rather than a cash crop. Lemon ( C. limon ) Until

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Spain is the second highest lemon fruit-producing country in the world and the greatest exporter. Approximately 80% of the Spanish lemon production is located in the arid southeast where drought and salinity stress are common. However, very heavy

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continuation of that research, the objective of the present study was to evaluate pure SGFW and different SGFW-based substrates as alternatives to coir and vermiculite for seed germination and seedling growth of ‘Mrs. Burns’ lemon basil. Materials and methods

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Growth and topological indices of `Eureka' lemon were measured after 6 months in well-watered and well-fertilized conditions and factorial combinations of moderate (29/21C day/night) or high (42/32C day/night) temperatures and ambient (350 to 380 μmol·mol) or elevated (constant 680 μmol·mol-1) CO2. In high temperatures, plants were smaller and had higher levels of leaf chlorophyll a than in moderate temperatures. Moreover, plants in high temperatures and elevated CO2 had about 15 % higher levels of leaf chlorophyll a than those in high temperatures and ambient CO2. In high temperatures, plant growth in elevated CO2 was about 87% more than in ambient CO2. Thus, high CO2 reduced the negative effect of high temperature on shoot growth. In moderate temperatures, plant growth in elevated CO2 was only about 21% more than in ambient CO2. Irrespective of temperature treatments, shoot branch architecture in elevated CO2 was more hierarchical than those in ambient CO2. Specific shoot extension, a topological measure of branch frequency, was not affected by elevated CO2 in moderate temperatures, but was increased by elevated CO2 enrichment in high temperatures-an indication of decreased branch frequency and increased apical dominance. In moderate temperatures, plants in elevated CO2 had fibrous root branch patterns that were less hierarchical than at ambient CO2. The lengths of exterior and interior fibrous roots between branch points and the length of second-degree adventitious lateral branches were increased >50% by high temperatures compared with moderate temperatures. Root length between branch points was not affected by CO2 levels.

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