The rate of leaf unfolding as a function of temperature was determined for Begonia × hiemalis Fotsch under long-day (16 hours of light) conditions before flower initiation. Irradiance was maintained at 280 ± 20 μmol·m–2·s–1 (16.1 mol·m–2·day–l). The two cultivars Hilda and Ballet had similar rates of leaf unfolding in the range from 13 to 28C. The rate increased to a maximum of 0.116 leaves/day at 21C and then decreased at higher temperature. The following quadratic function (where T is the temperature in °C) was selected to describe initial long-day leaf unfolding rate in B. × hiemalis: leaves/day = -0.2083 + 0.03145 × T – 0.0007631 × T2, (r2 = 0.97). The leaf unfolding response to temperature varied for plants of `Hilda' and `Ballet' during short days (10 hours of light) following the initial long-day period. Plants of `Ballet' continued to unfold leaves at a similar rate as under initial long photoperiods, while the leaf unfolding rate for `Hilda' decreased to half the rate observed under long days.
The rate of leaf unfolding for Cyclamen persicum Mill. was determined at 8 to 24 °C. Temperature treatments started 9 weeks from seeding and after 8 weeks all plants were moved to 16 °C. The cultivars Miracle Salmon, Miracle Scarlet, and Miracle White produced leaves at a similar rate. The relationship of (leaves/d) = - 0.01727 - 0.02284 * °C + 0.005238 * (°C)2 - 0.000162 * (°C)3 (R 2 = 0.99) best described the leaf unfolding rate in response to temperature. The maximum leaf unfolding rate was estimated to 0.329 leaves/day at 19.1 °C. Flower buds (2 mm diameter) developed within 60 days from the start of temperature treatments except at 8 °C. Thirty-five additional days at 16 °C were required for cyclamen initially grown at 8 °C for 8 weeks to produce flower buds. Despite similar conditions during bud development, flowering was delayed 14 to 18 days for plants initially grown at 24 °C compared to those grown at 12 to 20 °C. Plants initially at 8 °C did not flower within 70 days at 16 °C. Leaf and flower numbers at first open flower increased as initial temperature increased from 12 to 24 °C while dry weight and height only increased to 20 °C. No correlation between leaf unfolding and rate of flowering or flower number was detected. Recommendations for 20 °C during early cyclamen growth can be expected to support rapid rates of leaf unfolding and development, and large flower numbers.
The rate of leaf unfolding was determined for Easter lily (Lilium longiflorum Thunb.) ‘Nellie White’ grown at day and night temperatures ranging from 14° to 30°C. In this temperature range, rate of leaf unfolding was a linear function of average daily temperature; i.e., the effect on rate of leaf unfolding for day temperature was the same as for night temperature. The function determined was: leaves unfolded per day = −0.1052 + (0.0940 × average daily temperature). Isopleth plots were developed to describe day and night temperatures required for specific rates of leaf unfolding under 8-, 10-, and 12-hr day temperature periods.
Treatments with gibberellic acid (GA3), naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), or their combination to Cyclamen persicum Mill. ‘Swan Lake’ plants resulted in separate, antagonistic, or cooperative effects on leaf lamina unfolding, days to flowering, number of leaves at first flower, and length of the first flower's peduncle. Generally, GA3 accelerated plant growth nonspeciflcally, resulting in plants which flowered earlier than untreated plants, but with a similar number of leaves at first bud flowering. The combination of GA3 plus NAA specifically accelerated flowering, but this effect diminished as the treatment frequency or quantity of the NAA application increased.
Growth chamber studies were conducted to evaluate the effect of four diurnal temperatures (24/18C, 26/20C, 28/22C, and 30/24C) on yield, leaf expansion and unfolding, and vine length of sweetpotatoes [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam]. Four vine cuttings (15 cm in length) of `TI-155' and `Georgia Jet' were grown for 120 days using a modified half-Hoagland nutrient solution with a 1:2.4 N:K ratio. Irradiance at canopy level averaged 600 μmol·m–2·s–1 at an 18/6 photoperiod, and RH of 70%. Storage root number/plant for both cultivars decreased with increased temperature. Storage root fresh and dry weights for both cultivars increased with temperatures up to 28/22C and declined at 30/24C. Foliage fresh and dry weights were not influenced by temperature for either cultivar. Leaf expansion rate and vine length were highest at 26/20C and lowest at 24/18C for both cultivars. Leaf unfolding rate was not affected by temperature foe either cultivar, but was more influenced by time of measurements.
Saintpaulia ionantha `Utah' plants were grown in growth chambers at constant 15, 20, 25, and 30°C temperatures and daily photosynthetic irradiances of 1, 4, 7, and 10 mol1 m-2 day-1 delivered by 23, 92, 161, and 230 μmol m-2 s-1 for 12 hours. Models were developed describing leaf unfolding rate (LUR) and flower development rate (FDR) as a function of temperature and irradiance by recording the dates of leaf unfolding and flower opening over the course of the experiment and then calculating rates using regression. Both LUR and FDR increased as temperature increased from 15 to 25°C and then decreased. Both LUR and FDR increased as irradiance increased from 1 to 4 mol m-2 day-1. Increasing daily irradiance above 4 mol m-2 da y-1 did not significantly increase LUR or FDR. Model validation data are being collected from plants growing under 3 irradiance levels in greenhouses maintained at 15, 20, 25, and 30°C air temperatures.
( Dougherty et al., 1979 ). We chose to treat white oak seedlings at the swollen bud, leaf unfolding, and expanded leaf growth stages ( Fig. 1 ). Fig. 1. The swollen bud, leaf unfolding, and expanded leaf growth stages of white oak (left to right
temperature on leaf unfolding over time. In general, leaf-unfolding rate per day (development rate) increases as average daily temperature increases within a limited temperature range ( Roberts and Summerfield, 1987 ; Vaid and Runkle, 2013 ). There is little
* Professor of Horticulture. Abbreviations: LUR, leaf unfolding rate; PPF, photosynthetic photon flux. 1 Graduate Research Assistant. We acknowledge the support of the Michigan Agricultural Experiment Station and Express Seed Co., Oberlin, Ohio
acetochlor + atrazine or s-metolachlor at the leaf unfolding stage. This article investigates more chloroacetanilide herbicides; determines if atrazine contributes to leaf tatters injury; and compares white and northern red oak injury ( Quercus rubra L