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Bau-Show Lin and Yann-Jou Lin

density of trees and several tree leaf characteristics, including the color, texture, and thickness, might affect the effectiveness of cooling. In addition, background microclimate conditions, including the intensity of solar radiation, vapor pressure of

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Chao-Yi Lin and Der-Ming Yeh

and percentage of opening stomata (numbers of opening stomata/total stomata number) were determined. Samples were taken from all plants, each with 10 replications per plant. The seventh 1eaf was cross-sectioned to measure leaf thickness. Shoots and

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Jia-yi Wang, Jian-shuang Shen, Mengmeng Gu, Jia Wang, Tang-ren Cheng, Hui-tang Pan, and Qi-xiang Zhang

the thickness of the whole leaf, upper epidermis, lower epidermis, and palisade and spongy parenchyma. The ratio of the palisade thickness to leaf thickness (CTR = palisade thickness/leaf thickness) was calculated ( Jiang et al., 2012 ; Kong et al

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Astrid Kubatsch, Heiner Grüneberg, and Christian Ulrichs

, leaves had higher chlorophyll content than leaves of plants grown in the sun ( Lance and Guy, 1992 ; Reyes et al., 1996 ). The leaf thickness of Pelargonium × hortorum was reduced by increasing temperatures from 10 °C to 32 °C ( Armitage et al., 1981

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Judith Pozo, Miguel Urrestarazu, Isidro Morales, Jessica Sánchez, Milagrosa Santos, Fernando Dianez, and Juan E. Álvaro

a randomized complete block design ( Little and Hill, 1978 ; Petersen, 1994 ). A total of 34 replicates were used for each solution and crop: 10 plants were used for the agronomic assessment, 4 were used for measuring the cuticle thickness in stems

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Reza Amiri, Kourosh Vahdati, Somayeh Mohsenipoor, Mohammad Reza Mozaffari, and Charles Leslie

traits of walnut and found heritabilities above 0.80 for shell thickness, nut and kernel weights and dates of leafing, first pollen shed, pistil receptivity, and harvest. The heritability was above 0.39 for lateral bearing, shell seal, percent light

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Alefsi David Sánchez-Reinoso, Gustavo Adolfo Ligarreto-Moreno, and Hermann Restrepo-Díaz

., 2010 ). In addition, water deficit favors MDA production, and higher levels of this biomarker suggest susceptible genotypes ( Moussa and Abdel-Aziz, 2008 ). On the other hand, leaf thickness is another important trait to quantify the effect of water

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Lie Li, Yu-xin Tong, Jun-ling Lu, Yang-mei Li, and Qi-chang Yang

proportion of palisade tissue thickness to leaf thickness was calculated. Five leaves from different plants were taken from each treatment, and every index for each micrograph was either measured or calculated 10 times. Photosynthetic performance

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Jongyun Kim, Seung Won Kang, Chun Ho Pak, and Mi Seon Kim

Photoshop ( Kwack et al., 1998 ; Li et al., 2007 ). Leaf thickness was measured with thickness gauge (MDC-SB; Mitutoyo Co., Kawasaki, Japan). Chlorophyll in fully expanded leaves was extracted with 10 mL N,N-dimethylformamide solution per 0.2 g of samples

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Jiangbo Dang, Tingrong Wu, Guolu Liang, Di Wu, Qiao He, and Qigao Guo

scions. Height, stem thickness, internode length, leaf length, and leaf width of grafted scions of the tree lines were measured on grafted seedlings (8 months old). The leaves on middle shoots of the scions were used for the measurements. Chlorophyll