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1. Phenotypic changes seen in potato scions after grafting. Fig. 1. Leaf morphology. ( A ) Leaves that developed from lateral buds of potato scion grafted on Me tomato. Arrow indicates the scion/stock junction. ( B ) Comparison of

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were observed and photographed with Leica DM5500 light microscope fitted with Leica DFC550 digital camera. Results Morphological anatomy of young and mature leaf. The leaf comprises epidermal cells, mesophyll cells, and vascular bundles. In transverse

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they participate directly in plant metabolism after the stress is lifted ( Moreno-Galván et al., 2020 ). Our study aims 1) to evaluate the differences among four turfgrass species in terms of leaf and canopy morphologies and wear tolerance, 2) to

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populations, and safeguarding of germplasm. An efficient plant regeneration system was developed for the micropropagation of Georgia plume using leaf tissue as the explant source ( Woo and Wetzstein, 2008 ). This method has proven suitable for field

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increase leaf Si concentration and affect morphological traits of several floriculture species. Materials and Methods Plant culture. Rooted cuttings of several floriculture species ( Table 1 ) were received from a commercial supplier on 8 Feb

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morphological features of leaves, phenology, productivity, and climate. Materials and Methods The study area consisted of a collection of peach trees located at the experimental area of the Technological Federal University of Paraná [Universidade Tecnológica

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Sooty mold washed from leaves of four cultivars of pecan [Carya illinoensis (Wangenh.) C. Koch] was quantified. The amounts of sooty mold accumulation differed significantly (P ≤ 0.05) among the cultivars. Leaf surface morphology of each cultivar was examined. A higher incidence of sooty mold was associated with cultivars having a rough, granulated leaf topography than those with smoother leaf surfaces. Characteristics of leaf surface morphology may be useful in selecting germplasms with reduced susceptibility to sooty mold accumulation.

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Tree peony cultivars are usually classified according to flower characteristics (flower form and flower color) which are commonly affected by environmental influences and developmental levels. Judgment of flower forms may also depend on the observer. Precise and rapid cultivar identification methods are also required to manage cultivar collections as well as tree peony breeding programs. The objective of this paper is to analyze the discriminatory ability of leaf morphology and Intersimple sequence repeat (ISSR) marker systems for tree peony cultivars. As a result, although there exist large variations of leaf morphology of tree peony cultivars, the morphological characteristics of biternately compound leaves 3, 4, and 5 from the base of a shoot at the middle part of a plant are relatively stable with smaller variations within cultivars (2.7% to 27.1%, 16.8% on average) and with larger differentiations among cultivars (72.9% to 97.3%, 83.2% on average). Statistical and principal components analyses indicate that 12 leaf morphological characteristics are valuable for cultivar classification. ISSR markers present a precisely discriminatory power in tree peony cultivar classification without environmental influences. The cultivars with multiple flower forms, which makes it difficult to make judgment by means of a flower-form-based classification system, have been significantly characterized using leaf morphology or ISSR markers.

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Single node cuttings with one mature leaf were taken from Rosa ×hybrida `Baroness' and rooted in water culture. The plants were subjected to either 90% (high) or 70% (moderate) relative humidity (RH) in climate chambers. Single stem roses with intact roots were transferred to 40% (low) RH to investigate the stomatal response to water stress. Moderate RH plants showed decreasing leaf conductance from day 1 to day 3 during both light and dark phases, in contrast to high RH roses, which showed almost similar leaf conductances during the 3 days. Leaf samples were studied with a light microscope (LM) and a scanning electron microscope (SEM) to quantify morphological and structural changes. Epidermal imprints showed a significantly higher number of stomata and longer stomata, as well as a wider stomatal apertures on roses grown at high RH. The high RH leaves showed a reduced density of vascular tissue and thinner leaves when compared to moderate RH leaves. Enlarged intercellular air-space (ICA) was found due to a reduced number of spongy and palisade mesophyll cells. No obvious difference in shape, size, undulation or the structure of the epicuticular wax was observed in SEM between high and moderate RH grown leaves. In conclusion, roses subjected to high RH showed differences in leaf anatomy, stomatal morphology and stomatal function, which may explain the loss of water control of these plants. Stomatal ontogenesis should occur at RH conditions below 85% to secure roses with a high postharvest quality potential.

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Growth and leaf physiology responses of container-grown `Arkin' carambola (Averrhoa carambola L.) trees to long-term exposure of ≈25%, ≈50%, or 100% sunlight were studied in four experiments in Guam and Florida. Shading increased rachis length and leaflet area, and decreased leaflet thickness. Shaded trees also had a more horizontal branch orientation. Shading reduced dark respiration (Rd) and light compensation and saturation points but increased chlorophyll concentration and N-use efficiency. Light-saturated net CO2 assimilation (A) was not affected by developmental light level. Trees in full sun had smaller total leaf area, canopy diameter, and shoot: root ratio and exhibited leaflet movement to avoid direct solar radiation. Also, trees grown in 100% sunlight had a more vertical branch orientation and greater stomatal density than shaded trees. The ratio of variable to maximum fluorescence (Fv/Fm) declined during midday in 100% sunlight trees. This pattern was accompanied by a midday suppression of A in 100% sunlight-grown trees in Guam. `Arkin' carambola trees exposed to ≈25%, ≈50%, or 100% sunlight for up to 39 weeks exhibited physiological and morphological adaptations that resulted in similar growth. These results indicate that carambola efficiently adapts to different developmental light intensities.

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