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( Gagliardi and Brand, 2007 ). Japanese barberry and winged euonymus are among the most popular landscape shrubs because they are highly adaptable to variable landscapes and perform well under difficult growing conditions such as parking lot island plantings

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of increases in precipitation but a concurrent increase in fertilization would probably not provide any competitive advantage to this species. The challenge for the landscape manager is the need to strike a balance between adequate irrigation and

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between GC% and climatic adaptability. However, caution should be used to draw correlations between observations in monocots to trees such as maples. Furthermore, it should be noted that there are inherent differences between monocots and dicots beyond

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popular broadleaf trees, started to make their way into Chinese landscapes by the end of the 19th century ( Sheng, 1979 ). By the 1940s, at least 14 genera of North American trees could be found in Chinese botanical gardens and landscapes; by the 1970s

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). Northern bayberry has been found growing in road cuts, railroad banks, gravel pits, and disturbed sites stripped of topsoil. The plant’s broad adaptability may be attributable to its ability to form root nodule associations with the nitrogen fixing bacteria

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Hibiscus species are tropical, but Hibiscus syriacus is widely used in temperate regions due to its broad adaptability and variable ornamental characteristics. H. syriacus is the most commonly used hardy Hibiscus species in temperate to subtropical

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). Thriving in well-drained soils and exhibiting excellent drought tolerance, penstemon adapts to a wide range of temperatures and elevations from mountaintops to sea level. Its durability and aesthetic value have made penstemon popular as a landscape plant

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Abstract

Pyracantha, commonly known as firethorn, is a major nursery container produced plant that is extensively grown in the landscape for the spectacular fruit display. The U.S. National Arboretum Pyracantha research objectives of hardiness, evergreen foliage, compact growth habit, persistent and brilliantly colored fruit, and, foremost, disease resistance, have been achieved in the production of superior cultivars. The previously introduced, ‘Shawnee’ (1) and ‘Mohave’ (2), have become established commercially. ‘Navaho’ and ‘Teton’ are 2 distinctly different cultivars that further extend the adaptability of Pyracantha for production and landscape use.

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Abstract

Ilex crenata Thunb. is one of nearly 200 species of holly indigenous to eastern and southeastern Asia. The species was introduced into cultivation in Europe about 1864, and into the U.S. shortly afterwards. Ilex crenata is probably the most successful small-leaved evergreen, dioecious shrub in the eastern U.S. for use in foundation plantings, as accent plants and in hedges. At the present time more than 125 named cultivars of I. crenata have been introduced into cultivation. These clonal sections are distinguished by different habits and rates of growth, varying leaf shapes and sizes, contrasts in adaptability to variable landscape purposes, and versatility in hardiness, as well as heat tolerance.

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Japanese cedar [Cryptomeria japonica (Thun. ex L.f.) D. Don. (Taxodiaceae)] cultivars have become quite popular in the U.S. landscape and nursery industries. Their popularity is expected to increase as more attractive and adaptable horticultural selections gain recognition. Taxonomic problems include an inadequate inventory of selected variants cultivated in the United States, instability of names at the infraspecific taxonomic level, poor descriptions of the cultivars, and a lack of representative specimens and identification aids to help horticulturists identify unknown specimens. A study of Cryptomeria japonica cultivated in the United States is needed to address these problems.

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