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to be a food high in oxalic acid ( Council on Renal Nutrition, 2009 ). Potential health associations of oxalic acid (synonymous in this article with oxalate) are decreased bioavailability of other nutrients and increased risk of kidney stone formation

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Camomile (Chamomilla recutita Rauschert) is an annual plant from the Asteraceae. Camomile is one of the most frequently used medicinal plants, and has a commanding place in the world market. The flower heads are used in pharmaceutical preparations, and the cosmetic and beverage industries. The extracts from camomile flowers, to mention some, are known to have the most-effective sedative (3.29× compared to papaverin), antidepressive, tumor -protective, antiinflammatory, and accelerative properties in the regeneration of skin tissues. It is considered a panecia, due to its strong effects among many others, in the treatment of gastric ulcers, stomatology, respiratory complications, nephritis and nephrolithiasis (dilution of the kidney stones), and urinary bladder stones (cystolithiasis). Recently, successful research programs have been carried out to develop new camomile varieties with higher flower yield and better content of the active substances, suitable for mechanical harvesting under conventional cultivation. Apart from growing consumer demand for organically grown herbal products, the use of some herbicides and insecticides has resulted in the shifts of the content of active substances. The yield stability, content, and composition of the active substances under organic cultivation, particularly in areas with extreme climatic conditions, such as northern North America, should be investigated. We identified and introduced new camomile varieties and studied their suitability for organic field cultivation in Quebec, Canada. We studied over-wintering ability, yield potentials, and the content and composition of essential oil, flavonoids, and coumarins under field conditions. The physiology of the new varieties, particularly the relationship between photosynthesis and yield formation, and the accumulation of the active substances under different cultivation conditions remain to be studied.

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tolerance and indeterminacy from indeterminate Jamaica red (PI 163122) to kidney bean Annu. Rep. Bean Improv. Coop. 43 68 69 Miklas, P.N. Stone, V. Daly, M.J. Stavely, J.R. Steadman, J.R. Bassett

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semiopen canopy, and has a medium sprouting ability and branch formation rate. The trunk is thick and gray-brown. Perennial shoots are gray, and 1-year-old shoots are thick, strong, and green, with smooth surfaces and a lack of pubescence. The internode is

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246 Massey, L.K. Roman-Smith, H. Sutton, R.A.L. 1993 Effect of dietary oxalate and calcium on urinary oxalate and risk of formation of calcium oxalate kidney stones J. Amer. Diet. Assn. 93 901 906

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calories ( Valdez-Perez et al., 2011 ). These legumes are so vital for human nutrition that ≈12 million metric tons of Phaseolus vulgaris are consumed every year worldwide. Moreover, in 2014, the United States produced more than 86,700 t of kidney beans

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concentrations of oxalic acid can cause a burning sensation when beets are eaten raw ( Freidig and Goldman 2011 ), and diets rich in oxalic acid may contribute to the formation of kidney stones ( Noonan and Savage 1999 ). Additionally, oxalic acid may possess

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Department of Botany and Plant Sciences University of California Riverside, CA 92521 DePaoli— Breeder: University of California, Riverside (N Stone and M Roose). Parentage: clonal F1 hybrid, F600 x M256. Characteristics: mixed sex cultivar, combines high

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