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; 69,969 acres), and kale ( Brassica oleracea var. acephala ; 15,325 acres) [U.S. Department of Agriculture, National Agricultural Statistics Service (USDA NASS), 2017]. Kale is a low-calorie, nutrient-rich leafy green that contains 10% or more of 17

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Brassica oleracea , 207 Brassica rapa L., and 50 Brassica napus L. accessions have been collected, representing most of the region. The B . oleracea collection includes kale ( B. oleracea acephala group), cabbage ( B. oleracea capitata group), and

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Kale is a leaf vegetable and includes cultivars mainly belong to B. oleracea and some cultivars of B. napus . Traditionally, kale has been used as a garnish, but is gaining popularity as a primary ingredient due to public perception that kale is

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in year-round locally produced foods increases ( Feldmann and Hamm, 2015 ). Three increasingly popular leafy vegetables are kale ( Brassica oleracea and B. napus pabularia ), spinach ( Spinacea oleracea ), and Swiss chard (chard, Beta vulgaris

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-carotene concentrations in vegetable crops through cultural management techniques would be beneficial to the health status of consumers. Kale ( Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala D.C.) ranks highest and spinach ( Spinacia oleracea L.) ranks second among vegetable

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Kale ( B. oleracea L. var. acephala ) is one of the most widespread vegetables of the Brassicaceae family found worldwide ( Fernandes et al., 2009 ). In Brazil, it represents a major share of vegetable production ( Silva et al., 2012 ) and is of

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increase in fresh and dry biomass across cultivars with the increasing DLI. Lefsrud et al. (2006a) reported linear increases in the fresh and dry biomass of kale with DLI increases from 10.8 to 43.2 mol·m −2 ·d −1 . Gent (2016) found an increase in the

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(2013) also showed that cyano-fertilizer increased lettuce ( Lactuca sativa) yields by 58% when compared with composted manure. Research is underway to improve N fixation efficiency and economic feasibility of cyano-fertilizer. Kale ( Brassica oleracea

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value when grown organically and their suitability to cooler temperatures and frost tolerance ( Ernst et al., 2012 ; Heyduck et al., 2019 ; Johnny’s Selected Seeds, 2019 ; Walker et al., 2012 ). In this study, ‘Red Russian’ kale and ‘Bloomsdale Long

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Ornamental kale is widely used as a cool-season bedding plant but there is also a growing interest in selected cultivars, which feature tall, thin-stemmed, cabbage-like heads, as cut flowers (T. Spencer, personal communication) ( Fig. 1 ). In the

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