Jasmonic acid (JA) and its volatile equivalent, methyl jasmonate (MeJA), are plant hormones involved in chemical and physiological defense responses. MeJA and JA have no direct impact on plant herbivores, but instead contribute to an intracellular
Trans-jasmonic acid (JA), cis-JA, and trans-methyl jasmonate (MeJA) were quantified in pulp and seeds of `Tsugaru' apple [Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill. var. domestica (Borkh.) Mansf.] and `Satohnishiki' sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.). Trans-JA and cis-JA showed similar changes during development in both types of fruit. JA concentration was high in the early growth stages of apple pulp development, decreased with days after full bloom (DAFB), and then increased again during maturation. There was an initial decrease in concentration of MeJA in apple pulp, followed by a general increase towards harvest. Concentrations of JA and MeJA in the pulp of sweet cherry were high during early growth stages, then decreased towards harvest. PDJ treatment at 104 DAFB (preclimacteric stage) increased endogenous abscisic acid concentration and anthocyanin concentration at 122 and 131 DAFB (maturation stages) in apple. JA concentration in apple seeds was also high in the early growth stages, then decreased, and finally peaked at harvest. MeJA concentration in apple seeds increased towards harvest. In the seeds of sweet cherry, JA and MeJA concentrations generally increased until harvest. In both types of fruit, concentrations of JA and MeJA in the seeds were higher than those of pulp. On a dry weight basis, changes in concentration in the seeds preceded those in the pulp. These results demonstrate that relatively high amounts of JA and MeJA are associated with young developing fruit. These substances may have a role in regulation of fruit growth at early growth stages, though this has not been demonstrated. Chemical name used: n-propyl dihydrojasmonate (PDJ).
Jasmonates are a group of native plant bioregulators that occur widely in the plant kingdom and exert various physiological activities when applied exogenously to plants. We investigated the effect of free jasmonic acid (JA) on stem and root growth and tuberization of potato in vitro nodal culture. Nodal cuttings of three potato cultivars, Norchip, Red Pontiac, and Russet Burbank, were cultured in 2.5 × 15 cm test tubes containing either nodal culture (MS with 2% sucrose) or tuber-inducing (MS with 8% sucrose and 11.5 μm kinetin) medium. The media were supplemented with JA at 0, 0.1, 0.5 1.0, 5.0, 10.0 and 50 m. The cultures were maintained under a 16-hour photoperiod at 24°C for 6 weeks. Potato cultivars showed different sensitivities to JA in stem growth. Norchip is the most and Red Pontiac the least sensitive cultivar. On the nodal culture medium, stem length of Norchip was promoted at 0.1–5 μm, and inhibited at 10–50 μm of JA, but that of Red Pontiac was promoted by JA at all concentrations tested. The number of nodes increased significantly on media with JA than that on medium without JA. The number of adventitious roots did not, but the lateral roots increased significantly when JA was added to the medium. On tuber-inducing media, stem length and node number did not appear to be affected by addition of JA to the medium. The number of axillary shoots increased significantly on the media with low concentrations of JA (0.1–5 μm). No microtubers formed on both media from all three cultivars in 6 weeks.
This research focused on the effects of nitrogen fertilization on jasmonic acid accumulation and total phenolic concentrations in gerbera. The phytohormone jasmonic acid is known to regulate many plant responses, including inducible defenses against insect herbivory. Phenolics are constitutive secondary metabolites that have been shown to negatively affect insect feeding. Gerbera jamesonii `Festival Salmon Rose' plants were grown in a growth chamber and subjected to either low fertilization (only supplied with initial fertilizer charge present in professional growing media) or high fertilization (recommended rate = 200 mg·L-1 N). Plants were fertilized with 200 mL of a 15N–7P–14K fertilizer at 0 or 200 mg·L-1 N at each watering (as needed). Treatments consisted of ±mechanical wounding with a hemostat to one physiologically mature leaf and the subsequent harvest of that leaf at specified time intervals for jasmonic acid quantification. Total phenolics were measured in physiologically mature and young leaves harvested 0 and 10 hours after ±mechanical wounding. Low-fertility plants had reduced aboveground dry mass, were deficient in nitrogen and phosphorus, and had about a 10× higher concentration of total phenolics when compared to high fertility plants. In low-fertility plants, young leaves had greater concentrations of phenolics compared to physiologically mature leaves. There were no differences in total phenolics due to wounding. The effect of nitrogen fertilization on jasmonic acid accumulation will also be discussed.
exogenous application for plants ( Bialecka and Kepczynski, 2003 ; Chou and Kao, 1992 ), but it has been reported that n -propyl dihydrojasmonate, an n -propyl ester rather than a methyl ester jasmonic acid (JA) derivative, has a practical effect compared
acid (SA), and jasmonic acid (JA) were analyzed with high-performance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry by Nanjing Webiolotech Biotechnology Co., Ltd., as reported by Ma et al. (2008 ). The liquid phase conditions were as follows
of plant biology, including flower development and senescence, has been shown to be involved in the regulation of floral volatile emissions in certain plant species ( Jiang et al., 2011 ; Underwood et al., 2005 ). The jasmonic acid (JA) pathway was
role in plant resistance to pathogen infection. The contents of ethylene, salicylic acid (SA), and jasmonic acid (JA) in plants tend to increase with pathogen infection ( Bari and Jones 2009 ). Recent studies have shown the crosstalk of different
defense role to deter herbivorous insects and other unwanted visitors ( Raguso, 2004 ). For example, nicotin emitted from the flowers of tobacco ( Nicotiana attenuate ) has a defense role ( Euler and Baldwin, 1996 ). The jasmonic acid (JA) pathway has been
pathogen ( Sanchez-Serrano, 2010 ). Jasmonic acid is the major hormone involved in mechanical wound responses as it highly regulates wound-induced gene expression leading to induced systemic resistance (ISR) and plays a major role in tolerance to