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Kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa) is a functionally dioecious plant where fruit size is dependent on number of seeds set. Pollen fertility was estimated in 1990 and 1991 by percentage stainability and percentage germinability in vitro. Profiles of the isozymes AAT, GPI and PGM were used to assess if any large differences in pollen fertility could be attributed to genotypic variation. Based on these three isozymes, eight different genotypes were discovered. Although significant differences were found among vines within orchards and among orchards, all vines can be considered good pollenizers (stainability > 87%). A positive correlation was found in 1991 between percentage stainability and percentage germination.

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The similarity or differences of peroxidase isozymes in rootstocks and scions may influence their graft compatibility. This study was conducted to identify peroxidase isozymes that may be used as markers to predict compatibility between pear (Pyrus communis L.) and various quince (Cydonia oblonga Mill.) clones. `Bartlett' (BT) and `Beurre Hardy' (BH) pear cultivars are known to form incompatible and compatible grafts, respectively, with quince rootstocks. The two pear scion cultivars were budded on `quince A' (QA), `quince BA-29', and 15 selected quince clones from Turkey. Bark and cambial tissues were taken from nonbudded rootstocks and scions, and 4 cm above and below the graft union for peroxidase isozyme analysis performed by starch gel electrophoresis. Isoperoxidase analyses were also performed on samples from the graft unions collected 12 months after grafting. Many isozyme bands were observed commonly in the two scions; however, one anodal peroxidase A was detected in BH (compatible scion) but not in BT (incompatible scion) samples. This isoperoxidase was also detected in QA, Quince BA-29, and nine of the Turkish quince clones. Another isoperoxidase, band B, was detected in BH but not in BT or any of the rootstocks. However, the compatible (BH/QA) and moderately compatible (BT/BA-29) graft union tissues contained bands A and B whereas incompatible graft union tissues (BT/QA) lacked both. Graft union samples involving BT and five Turkish quince clones (705, 609-2, 702, 804, and 806) had both `A' and `B' isoperoxidases while one or both of these bands were absent in nonbudded graft partners. Field observations of 3.5 year-old grafts of BT and Turkish quince clones revealed that the vegetative growth (vigor) of BT scion was significantly greater, when grafted on these five clones, than that in graft combinations with other clones. We suggest that matching of isoperoxidase `A' in quince rootstocks and BH pear scion may be associated with a compatible graft combination. Additionally, presence of isoperoxidases `A' and `B' in the graft union tissues may be used as an indicator to predict a compatible graft between BT and quince rootstocks.

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peroxidase isozymes as well as the protein profiles between bush and vine-type phenotype in a near-isogenic line of C. moschata bush plants. Materials and Methods Plant material. Near-isogenic plants (five backcrosses) of C. moschata

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previously described within the United States. In 2005, isolates were similar to the US-13 genotype based on mating type, mtDNA, and isozyme profiles but could not be identified conclusively because a RG57 profile for US-13 genotype could not be obtained from

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the ester profile can be altered by the simultaneous operation of more than one AAT isozyme (Beekwilder et al., 2004 ; Cumplido-Laso et al., 2012 ), conclusive evidence for this is lacking in apple. The aim of this research was to characterize

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A spontaneous tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) triploid hybrid was analyzed by isozyme and restriction fragment length polymorphism profiles. The double chromosome complement donor was shown to be the male parent, contrary to the prevailing hypothesis.

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Isozyme markers were used to identify cultivars and assess the genetic diversity within a germplasm collection of 49 Hatiora Britt. & Rose clones. The collection included accessions of Easter cactus [H. gaertneri (Regel) Barthlott, H. graeseri Barthlott ex D. Hunt, and H. rosea (Lagerheim) Barthlott] plus H. herminiae (Campos-Porto & Castellanos) Backeberg ex Barthlott and H. salcornioides (Haworth) Britton & Rose. Seven enzyme systems were analyzed: aspartate aminotransferase, glucose-6-phosphate isomerase, leucine aminopeptidase, malate dehydrogenase, phosphoglucomutase, shikimate dehydrogenase, and triosephosphate isomerase. Thirteen loci and 42 alleles were identified. Twenty-one clones (43%) displayed unique isozyme profiles, but the remaining 28 clones shared isozyme profiles with one to three other clones. Percent polymorphic loci, mean number of alleles per locus, and mean heterozygosity were 69, 3.23, and 0.30, respectively, for the entire collection. Isozymes also proved useful for verifying that some progeny were genuine F1 hybrids.

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Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was used to study inheritance and linkage of isozymes in Easter cactus (Hatiora species and interspecific hybrids). Five isozyme systems were analyzed: aspartate aminotransferase (AAT), glucose-6-phosphate isomerase (GPI), malate dehydrogenase (MDH), phosphoglucomutase (PGM), and triosephosphate isomerase (TPI). F1, F2, BC1, and S1 progeny were used for inheritance studies. Six polymorphic loci (Aat-1, Gpi-1, Mdh-1, Pgm-1, Pgm-2, and Tpi-2) were identified. Aat-1 and Pgm-1 were linked (recombination frequency = 26% ± 7%), but the other isozyme loci assorted independently. Aberrant segregation ratios were observed in at least one segregating family for all six isozyme loci. We hypothesize that segregation distortion was due to linkage between isozyme loci and other genes subject to pre- or postzygotic selection. The existence of five additional isozyme loci (Aat-2, Gpi-2, Mdh-2, Mdh-3, and Tpi-1) was inferred from segregation patterns and by comparison of isozyme profiles from phylloclades and pollen. These isozyme loci may prove useful for confirming hybridity in intra- and interspecific crosses, determining parentage of cultivars, and assessing genetic diversity in germplasm collections.

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The similarity or differences of peroxidase isozymes in rootstocks and scions may influence their graft compatibility. This study was conducted to identify peroxidase isozymes and/or other proteins that may be used as markers to predict compatibility between pear and various quince clones. `Bartlett' (BT) and `Beurre Hardy' (BH) pear cultivars were budded on 13 selected quince clones and quince A (QA) rootstocks; BT and BH cultivars are known to be incompatible and compatible, respectively, with quince root stocks. Bark and cambial tissues were taken from unbudded rootstocks, scions, and 4 cm above and below the graft union for isozyme analysis. Samples were collected 1, 2, 3, and 12 months after grafting. In addition, samples from the graft unions were also analyzed 12 months after grafting. Isozyme separation was performed by starch gel electrophoresis. Many isozyme bands were commonly observed in the two scions; however, one anodal peroxidase was detected in BH but not in BT samples. This isozyme was also detected in QA and in all but four quince clones. Protein profiles of bark tissues from QA and three pear scions (BT, `Bosc', and P. crassane) were determined using SDS-PAGE. In general, protein profiles of the three pear cultivars appeared remarkably similar; however, P. crassane (a compatible pear cultivar on QA) had a 63 kDa protein, which was absent in BT and faintly observed in `Bosc' (intermediate compatibility). Our results suggest that these isoperoxidase and polypeptide could be associated with pear/quince graft compatibility.

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The use of protein profiles and isozyme banding patterns as genetic markers in cultivated Opuntia species was investigated using SDS-PAGE and spectrophotometric analysis of seeds and stem (cladode) tissues. Twenty morphologically different entries belonging to six Opuntia species were analyzed for total protein profile and three enzyme systems (superoxide dismustase [SOD], phosphoglucomutase [PGM] and UDPG ppase). Seed proteins, mostly low molecular weights, were 3-fold that of cladode proteins. Marked differences in protein molecular weight were found among the entries. PGM activity, found only in the cladode tissues, differred among the entries. No UDPG ppase activity was found in either seeds or cladode tissues. Within the entries surveyed, identical SOD banding patterns were observed indicating some degree of similarity among the species. The preliminary results suggest that isozyme and protein profiles can be used as markers in genetic studies of cultivated Opuntia species.

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