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David Kohanbash, George Kantor, Todd Martin, and Lauren Crawford

able to understand the vast amount of collected data. Next generation WSN systems need to help the user understand the data and make the data actionable. One way to make the data actionable is to control irrigation. At the simplest level, users can look

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Matthew Chappell, Sue K. Dove, Marc W. van Iersel, Paul A. Thomas, and John Ruter

Devices). Web-based graphical user interface. SensorWeb, developed by Carnegie–Melon University as part of this project ( Kohanbash et al., 2013 ), allowed growers to view irrigation and environmental data while in monitoring-mode and send irrigation

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Robert Andrew Kerr, Lambert B. McCarty, Matthew Cutulle, William Bridges, and Christopher Saski

. End-users should irrigate POST herbicide applications to reduce turfgrass injury. If goosegrass plants are mature, a second application 2 to 3 weeks after the initial application will improve control efficacy. Literature Citied Abusteit, E.O. Corbin, F

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Alexander Levin and Lloyd Nackley

Irrigation management typically starts with indirect or direct monitoring of the crop or its surrounding environment. The most common indirect methods are the monitoring of soil moisture conditions—either through measurement of soil water content

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Brent Rowell and Mar Lar Soe

( Fig. 1D ). After determining the water requirement in gallons per 100 ft 2 , users then turn the disc over to Side 2 ( Fig. 3 ) and point the red arrow at the top of the rotating outer disc ( Fig. 3A ) to the field size to be irrigated shown in square

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Maria C. Morera, Paul F. Monaghan, Michael D. Dukes, Ondine Wells, and Stacia L. Davis

literature on smart irrigation for urban landscapes has focused on performance dimensions. However, if water purveyors are to successfully promote smart controllers in an effort to reduce public-supply water demand and conserve groundwater, feedback from end-users

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John D. Lea-Cox, Cindy Zhao, David S. Ross, Theodore E. Bilderback, J. Roger Harris, Susan D. Day, Chuanxue Hong, Thomas H. Yeager, Richard C. Beeson Jr, William L. Bauerle, Andrew G. Ristvey, Mary Lorscheider, Sarah Dickinson, and John M. Ruter

and nutrients. This is because these farms produce plants in soilless substrates that differ markedly in how they retain water and nutrients in comparison with traditional soils. Water issues, specifically irrigation scheduling, surface water

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Joanne Logan

yield and quality suffer very quickly from drought ( Sanders, 1993 ; Straw, 2009 ). In many regions of the United States, supplemental irrigation is recommended to optimize vegetable crop yield. In the United States, outdoor water use, including food

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Luis A. Valdez-Aguilar, Catherine M. Grieve, Abdul Razak-Mahar, Milton E. McGiffen, and Donald J. Merhaut

Rodriguez, 2006 ). Many cities and districts have trouble balancing water demands of agricultural, landscape, industrial, and domestic users ( Qian and Mechan, 2005 ). Irrigation of the increasing urban landscapes associated with urban settings ( Loram et al

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Fan-Hsuan Yang, David R. Bryla, and R. Troy Peters

or use overhead irrigation systems to cool the berries ( Houston et al., 2018 ). Running overhead sprinklers or microsprinklers during heat events is an effective means of reducing temperature in blueberry ( Yang et al., 2020a ) and other fruit crops