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ornamentals mentioned previously. Santonia ‘Golden Light’, an intergeneric hybrid cultivar of S . aurantiaca × L . modesta , has already been developed through ovule culture ( Clark et al., 2005 ; Eason et al., 2001 ; Morgan et al., 2001 , 2003 ). This

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their intergeneric hybrids from a principal-coordinate analysis based on data from eight SSR loci. Symbols for hybrid progeny are shaded the same as their H. macrophylla parent. As expected, hybrid populations show considerable genetic diversity and

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Weigela Thunb. consists of 12 species distributed throughout Northeast Asia. Diervilla Mill. is a closely related genus containing three species endemic to North America. Taxa from both of these genera are important nursery crops. Hybrids between these genera could potentially combine the excellent cold hardiness and adaptability of Diervilla with diverse forms, foliage colors, and flower colors found in Weigela. Prior attempts to create intergeneric hybrids between these genera were unsuccessful and resulted in embryo abortion before seeds matured. To overcome this barrier, ovule culture and micropropagation procedures were used to develop intergeneric hybrids. Cleaved amplified polymorphic sequences (CAPS) analysis was used to verify hybrids. Intergeneric crosses, D. lonicera × W. middendorfiana, D. sessilifolia × W. florida (two clones), and D. lonicera × W. florida were attempted. Crosses of D. lonicera × W. middendorfiana did not produce viable hybrids. From the remaining three crosses, a total of 544 plants were obtained from 1278 ovules. About 85% of the 544 plants appeared very chlorotic or had low vigor, and senesced when transferred to multiplication medium. Only 80 of the 544 plants were successfully maintained in tissue culture, of which 10 have been successfully transferred ex vitro. CAPS analysis indicated that a majority of these plants were hybrids. Further studies are focused on improving tissue culture procedures and other methods to develop tetraploids to increase plantlet vigor and fertility.

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Intergeneric hybrids are generally rare; nevertheless, such putative hybrids need confirmation from other lines of evidence besides morphological intermediacy. In this study the authors used DNA sequences of nuclear and chloroplast genes to determine the hybrid identity of ×Chitalpa. Their results confirm that both ×Chitalpa tashkentensis `Pink Dawn' and ×C. tashkentensis `Morning Cloud' are the result of an Chilopsis linearis ×Catalpa sp. cross. However, Catalpa bignonioides does not seem to have participated in the cross, as speculated before. Different species of Catalpa may have been used as the paternal parent. ×C. tashkentensis `Morning Cloud' is the result of the C. linearis × C. speciosa cross, whereas the paternal parent of ×C. tashkentensis `Pink Dawn' may be a hybrid plant of C. ovata and C. speciosa.

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intergeneric sexual hybrids between Citrus and Citropsis ( Yahata et al., 2006 ) produced by combining conventional hybridization with embryo rescue and seedling grafting. Although their hybrids have been slow-growing and are yet to flower (H. Kunitake

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Chilean species. One of the most important outcomes of these breeding projects was the development of the first intergeneric hybrid, Chlorogavilea ‘Máxima’ obtained from Chloraea crispa Lindl., and Gavilea longibracteata (Lindl.) Sparre ex Navas

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Artificial intergeneric crosses between Alpinia purpurata and Etlingera elatior (Zingiberaceae) have produced hybrids. Data are presented with a Latin diagnosis and the name X Alpingera martinica F. Luc-Cayol proposed for these hybrids. The shape and color of the inflorescence of this hybrid species are an improvement relative to the ornamental value of the parents.

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Abstract

The intersectional hybrids, Oncidium altissimum × O. sarcodes and O. floridanum × maculatum, and the intergeneric hybrid, Odontoglossum stenoglossum × O. macuiatum (all with 2n = 56), showed near normal meiosis with 27 or 28 bivalents per pollen mother cell indicating strong homology of parental genomes. Trichocentrum albopurpureum (2n = 24) × O. lanceanum (2n = 26) exhibited fair homology of parental genomes with the formation of 6 to 10 bivalents out of the possible 12. The other intersectional hybrids, O. pulvinatum (2n = 42) × O. floridanum (2n = 56), O. triquetrum (2n = 42) × O. floridanum (2n = 56), O. microchilum (2n = 36) × O. floridanum (2n = 56) and O. microchilum (2n = 36) × O. onustum (2n = 56) and the intergeneric hybrid, Comparettia falcata (2n = 42) × O. onustum (2n = 56) showed highly irregular meiotic behavior with poor chromosome pairing. The number of bivalents in these hybrids ranged from 1.4 to 9.5, indicating poor genome relationships of the parental species.

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A morphological comparison of Calycanthus L., Chimonanthus Lindl., and Sinocalycanthus W.C. Cheng and S.Y. Chang is presented. Intergeneric crosses between Sinocalycanthus chinensis (W.C. Cheng and S.Y. Chang) W.C. Cheng and S.Y. Chang and Calycanthus floridus L. produced hybrid progeny. Data are presented comparing the parents and the progeny. ×Sinocalycalycanthus raulstonii Lasseigne and Fantz is proposed as the name for these hybrids and is validated with a Latin diagnosis. The original cultivar is named `Hartlage Wine'.

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Two USDA intergeneric, hybrid citrus scions, US 119 {[Citrus paradisi Mac. `Duncan' × Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf.] × C. sinensis Osb. `Succory'} and selection 17-11 {C. grandis US 145 × [Citrus paradisi Mac. `Duncan' × P. trifoliata (L.) Raf.]} on `Swingle' citrumelo (C. paradisi × P. trifoliata) rootstocks were examined for freeze hardiness traits (4 years) and general growth characteristics (2 years). Hardiness was compared with that of `Hamlin' orange [C. sinensis (L.) Osb.] and satsuma mandarin (C. unshiu Marc) from Fall 1993 to Spring 1997. As expected, US 119 and 17-11 were both hardier than `Hamlin' orange as determined by leaf disc electrolyte leakage (EL). Both showed freezing tolerance similar to that of satsuma mandarin, but 17-11 was significantly hardier than satsuma or US 119 at several times during the 4-year study. Trunk diameter and tree height were similar for US 119 and selection 17-11.

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