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Wenjing Guan, Xin Zhao, Richard Hassell, and Judy Thies

. Phytopathol. 42 185 209 Edelstein, M. Cohen, R. Burger, Y. Shriber, S. Pivonia, S. Shtienberg, D. 1999 Integrated management of sudden wilt in melons, caused by Monosporascus cannonballus , using grafting and reduced rates of methyl bromide Plant Dis. 83 1142

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Johnn Jairo Franco Hermida, Martha Cecilia Henao Toro, Miguel Guzmán, and Raul I. Cabrera

–B ) and CND ( C–D ) balance indices for a population conformed by plants of 39 rose cultivars grafted on R . × ‘Natal Briar’. P < 0.001 and n = 191. DRIS = Diagnosis and Recommendation Integrated System; CND = Compositional Nutrient Diagnosis; NBI

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Richard V. Tyson, Danielle D. Treadwell, and Eric H. Simonne

system for the plants' growing area integrated with a recirculating aquaculture tank system ( Table 1 ). Recirculating aquaponic systems that produce both fish and plants can accumulate dissolved nutrients from daily feed of fish, which approach

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Silvia Jiménez, Mónica Pérez, Blanca María Plaza, Roberto Salinas, and María Teresa Lao

other words, the regulator is used to repair the occurrence of change in the agrosystem ( Le Bot et al., 1998 ). Models that permit estimation of the nutrient uptake can be a useful tool for integrated fertigation management, permitting more rational

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J. Norrie, M.E.D. Graham, P.A. Dubé, and A. Gosselin

An automatic irrigation system was designed for use on green-house tomatoes growing in peat-based substrates. This system uses electronic tensiometers to monitor continuously substrate matric potential (SMP) in peat-bags. The system also uses the Penman equation to evaluate potential evapotranspiration (PET) through the acquisition of many greenhouse environmental parameters. Through a series of linear equations, estimates of PET are used in a computer-controller system to vary the electrical conductivity (EC) of irrigated nutrient solutions, as well as SMP setpoints at which irrigations are started. Such modifications to current irrigation management systems may improve fruit quality and reduce the risk of water stress during periods of high PET by irrigating more frequently with less-concentrated nutrient solutions. Conversely, during periods of low PET, irrigation is less frequent with more-concentrated nutrient solutions. Although no differences were found in fruit number or overall yield using variable nutrient solution EC, plant fresh weight was higher in those treatments. It is concluded that an integrated tensiometer-PET system may give increased precision to irrigation management and the control of crop growth in the greenhouse.

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S. Sansavini

The European Union's fruit industry is currently beset by marked surplus output, formidable market competition from non-EU countries, and strong consumer demanded for enhanced quality. This latter issue is particularly complex because it involves not only the fruit's genetic, esthetic, sensory, and taste characters, but also pre- and postharvest produce management practices and their impact on the environment and human health. The main thrust of the response to the challenges posed by these quality factors is integrated fruit production (IFP), a policy sustainable crop growing that the EU can support financially. Research has been directly involved in IFP and the directions in which it is moving. It has developed the first EU guidelines (OILB-ISHS), which initially covered pome crops and were later extended to cover all fruits, and the field, harvest, handling, storage, and market monitoring and quality-control techniques needed to implement them. These methods include biological and integrated disease and pest control, the introduction of plant material resistant to biotic and abiotic stresses, the development of field management practices to enhance plant defense and cropping-control mechanisms, the use of energy-saving irrigation and nutrient input techniques, the modeling of plantations, training systems and tree-bearing control, and advanced fruit storage, packaging, and transport methods. The updated advances in these areas are reported and discussed.

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Rachel Mack, James S. Owen, Alex X. Niemiera, and Joyce Latimer

grower grouped plants by water needs ( Table 2 ). Water management practices for optimizing irrigation efficiency were used by four respondents. Water management practices included cyclic irrigation, measuring leaching fraction, and timing irrigation

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Lori Hoagland, Lynne Carpenter-Boggs, David Granatstein, Frank Peryea, Jeff Smith, and John Reganold

Organic orchards represent a significant and growing component of Washington state agriculture. Comparison studies have shown that organic apple systems can be equally profitable yet more environmentally sustainable than their conventional counterparts. Despite this success, sustainable methods of weed control, fertility, and soil quality stabilization and improvement have remained a challenge. Intensive cultivation is commonly used to control weeds in organic orchards. This can lead to reduced or degraded soil organic matter, structure, water infiltration, aerated pore space, and other soil productivity parameters. In addition, tillage accelerates nutrient cycling and can result in the loss of valuable nutrients from the system. To address the need for sustainable organic methods of weed management, an integrated study of alternative understory management options was established in a newly planted orchard in 2005. Weed control measures included efficient tillage using a Wonder weeder, organically approved herbicide, wood chip mulch, and living cover mulches. Three rates of nitrogen (low, medium, and high) were applied across the Wonder weeder, wood chip, and living cover mulch plots in order to determine ideal N fertility rate. Analyses of total C and N and N-15 in organic fertilizers, soil pools, living cover biomass, and tree leaves are being used to track N and C cycling and partitioning, N-use efficiency, soil quality, and to determine optimal fertility guidelines. Preliminary results indicate intense competition between living mulch understory and orchard trees, and a trade-off may exist between maximizing soil quality and orchard productivity.

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Jesús Valencia

Under heavy pressure to prolong the life of landfills, cities have been asked to reduce the amount of trash deposited in them. Yard grass clippings and prunings contribute greatly to filling up local land fills. Since green waste can be easily composted, municipalities are looking into agriculture as a potential candidate in disposing of composted material. It is common knowledge that compost is good for plants. However, most information seems to be anecdotal or testimonial. Therefore, the need for scientific-based information is highly needed if compost is to be used successfully in agricultural lands. To generate hard data, replicated test plots were conducted in watermelons, sweet corn, and tomatoes in which 10 and 20 tons per acre of community-derived, green waste, composted material was used in addition to a commercial fertilizer rate and nontreated check. Soil and tissue analyses were run three times during the season to check nutrients in plants(N, P, and K). Organic matter, electrical conductivity, and pH were analyzed from soil samples. Yields and quality determinations also were taken from all crops for comparisons. Organic matter from compost treatments increased significantly in corn and tomatoes. Electrical conductivity was lower in the composted treatments, and K increased as well. Trials are being funded by the California Integrated Waste Management Board, and it will continue for at lease 1 more year.

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Robert F. Bevacqua

A research and extension program for increasing vegetable production in southeastern Virginia was launched by Virginia Cooperative Extension in 1997. The launch was triggered by the construction of a shipping point market in Southampton County. First, a market window study identified target crops and the harvest period when they could be most profitably marketed. Target crops were watermelon, sweet corn, snap beans, muskmelon, bell pepper, and pumpkin. Second, a technology transfer program was formulated that emphasized demonstrations, field days, classes, and workshops. On-farm demonstrations of intensive vegetable production techniques formed the foundations of the extension effort and focused on drip irrigation, plastic mulch on raised beds, water and nutrient monitoring, honey bee pollination, and integrated pest management (IPM). “Growing Vegetables for the Commercial Market” was the title of a short course offered in partnership with the local community college. Sixty-five graduates completed the course in 1999. Workshops were offered on farm labor, marketing, irrigation, and production techniques. On-farm research was conducted in support of the emerging vegetable industry. The focus was on sweet corn IPM, variety trials for watermelon and pumpkin, and soil and plant analysis. Information was made available to growers through a bimonthly newsletter, an annual bulletin entitled Commercial Production Recommendations, and VCE postings on the World Wide Web.