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Etaferahu Takele, John A. Menge, John E. Pehrson Jr., Jewell L. Meyer, Charles W. Coggins Jr., Mary Lu Arpaia, J. Daniel Hare, Darwin R. Atkin and Carol Adams

Associate entomologist. 8 Staff research associate. 9 Principal statistician. Supported in part by grants from the Univ. of California Statewide Integrated Pest Management Project and the Citrus Research Board. Mention of a trademark, proprietary product, or

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M.J. Else

In Integrated Pest Management (IPM), the costs of a control measure are compared to the potential for economic losses caused by a pest, with control measures being recommended only when expected costs of losses exceed costs of control. IPM models have been developed largely for insect pests, which multiply rapidly and for which timely population assessments are thus essential. Weed pests, on the other hand, multiply slowly. In the case of perennial crops, weeds may not reach populations sufficient to warrant control under conventional IPM criteria for many years. It is proposed that IPM concepts be adapted to weedy pests of perennial crops by creating models in which the long-term costs and consequences of both weeds and weed control measures are considered. These models would take into account expected increases in control costs and decreases in effectiveness of control measures over time and as a consequence consider some weeds to have effective thresholds at or near zero.

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Robin G. Brumfield, Arbindra Rimal and Steve Reiners

Production costs have been analyzed in several studies using such normative approaches as budgeting and mathematical programming, and positive approaches as estimation of production, cost, or profit functions. This study used budgeting methods to analyze the costs and benefits of adopting integrated crop management (ICM) or organic methods versus conventional agriculture for tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.), sweet corn (Zea mays L. var. saccharada), and pumpkins (Cucurbita pepo L.). Data were collected using field studies conducted at the Rutgers University Snyder Research and Extension Farm, Pittstown, N.J. Time and motion study techniques were used to record machinery use and labor quantities. Records of production inputs and yields were also collected. These records were then converted to a 1.0-acre (0.4-ha) basis to constructed crop budgets. Results show that ICM systems are more profitable than conventional and organic systems. Organic systems had the lowest net returns. However, because of the organic price premium, the net returns were fairly close to those for conventional and ICM systems.

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E. Takele

I used a multidisciplinary, multiyear experiment to investigate the effect of interactive application of inputs on growth, productivity, and returns of three mature Washington navel oranges [Citrus sinensis (L.) Obseck] grown on rough lemon rootstock. Seventy-two combinations [made up of three levels of irrigation, two levels of fungicides/nematicides (+/-), two levels of miticides (+/-), two levels of growth regulators (+ /-), and three levels of N fertilizer] were investigated. The productivity measures indicated statistically significant interactive effects in some cases and only main effects with others. However, knowledge of significant treatment effects in one or the other productivity parameters would not have provided a complete picture to the end user without the economic analysis. Using a partial budgeting procedure, returns (after costs) were calculated for each treatment combination. Statistical analyses of variance also were performed to test for significant differences of productivity, crop value, and returns among the treatments and interactions. The results indicate that returns after costs were higher for the + fungicide-nematicide treatment and also were high with increased irrigation. However, the various treatments and their significant roles in productivity and returns are discussed. Also, the impact of water cost increases are analyzed.

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N.D. Clarke, J.L. Shipp, W.R. Jarvis, A.P. Papadopoulos and T.J. Jewett

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Gerald Brown, Ricardo Bessin, John Hartman, Dwight Wolfe and John Strang

Fruit Crops

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Curtis H. Petzoldt, Stephen Reiners and Michael P. Hoffmann

The revision of the Integrated Crop and Pest Management Guidelines for Commercial Vegetable Production was made possible by USDA project 97-EPMP-1-0127 funded by the Northeast IPM Grants Program.

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Guangyao Wang, Mathieu Ngouajio, Milton E. McGiffen Jr and Chad M. Hutchinson

systems, which included conventional, integrated crop management (ICM), and organic. Materials and Methods Site description. Field experiments were conducted from 1999 to 2003 at the University of California Coachella Valley Agricultural

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Laura Pickett Pottorff and Karen L. Panter

with biological controls, will complete a true integration of pest management strategies. Few cropping systems lend themselves economically to this type of marriage of strategies as well as high tunnels do. Literature cited Al-Jabr, M.A. 1999 Integrated

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Marco Fontanelli, Luisa Martelloni, Michele Raffaelli, Christian Frasconi, Marco Ginanni and Andrea Peruzzi

compromising its commercial quality. Mechanical weed control is widely used for both presowing and postemergence weed management. Thermal weed control is increasingly used in both preemergence of the crop (stale seedbed technique) and postemergence in heat