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Garden Explorations, a continuing program at the South Carolina Botanical Garden (SCBG), Clemson University, promotes science participation among children, families, undergraduates, and teachers. Integrated by themes of Plants and their Partners, Plants and their Environment, and Web of Life, Garden Explorations programs include Summer Science Camps, Family Science Saturdays, and Family and Community Outreach Programs. In these programs, college students (largely education, horticulture, biology, and recreation majors) have the opportunity to learn about and experience natural science and math in the garden, along with elementary school teachers, parents, and upper-elementary age children. These inquiry-based learning opportunities enhance and expand the education and professional preparation of Clemson University students who participate in the program. By involving students in intensive hands-on, inquiry-oriented life science and math activities during Garden Explorations programs, we seek to increase science literacy in our region.

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and virtual field trip to engage students; and “Learning by doing: Applying the concept of pollen viability in a horticulture classroom” ( Perez, 2017 ) deals with understanding by doing—engaging in inquiry-based learning. The first article

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The principles of plant physiology are best learned in an environment where students are directly engaged in the process of scientific inquiry. Working from this assumption, we have developed a two-stage approach to laboratory instruction that fosters student-directed research within an undergraduate plant physiology course. During the first 10 weeks of a 16-week semester, students develop competency in measuring physiological variables by using an array of standard analytical techniques. A core set of 10 laboratory experiments provides structured instruction and teaches the principles of modern physiological analyses. During week 11, students observe a demonstration of a plant response, where the underlying cause of the phenomenon is not evident. Working together in groups of three or four, students hypothesize on the physiological mechanisms that may be involved. After submitting a statement of hypothesis and a plan of study, each group then requests the necessary instrumentation, plant material and greenhouse and/or growth chamber space to conduct their experiments. Results of their experimentation are presented during week 15 in both written and oral formats. The approach appears to help students to integrate and connect learnings from earlier in the semester to solve a defined problem. Further, students learn how to judge the reliability of experimental results and to evaluate whether conclusions drawn are justified by the data.

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EMG projects indicate that programmatic emphasis was on providing a response to an individual’s inquiry at EMG clinics at major shopping centers, libraries, public gardening events, and county fairs ( Warner, 1978 ). Responding to individual inquiry is

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There is an increasing demand for education in organic and sustainable agriculture from undergraduates, graduate students and extension agents. In this paper, we discuss highlights and evaluations of a multilevel approach to education currently being developed at North Carolina State University (NCSU) that integrates interdisciplinary training in organic and sustainable agriculture and the related discipline of agroecology through a variety of programs for undergraduate students, graduate students, and extension agents. These educational programs are possible because of a committed interdisciplinary faculty team and the Center for Environmental Farming Systems, a facility dedicated to sustainable and organic agriculture research, education, and outreach. Undergraduate programs include an inquiry-based sustainable agriculture summer internship program, a sustainable agriculture apprenticeship program, and an interdisciplinary agroecology minor that includes two newly developed courses in agroecology and a web-based agroecology course. Research projects and a diversity of courses focusing on aspects of sustainable and organic agriculture are available at NCSU for graduate students and a PhD sustainable agriculture minor is under development. A series of workshops on organic systems training offered as a graduate-level course at NCSU for extension agents is also described. Connecting experiential training to a strong interdisciplinary academic curriculum in organic and sustainable agriculture was a primary objective and a common element across all programs. We believe the NCSU educational approach and programs described here may offer insights for other land grant universities considering developing multilevel sustainable agriculture educational programs.

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Colorado State Univ. recently underwent the development of a new all university core curriculum. All faculty were encouraged to submit proposals for new courses or revised courses, which would be reviewed for inclusion under specified categories. Basic Horticulture was redesigned te emphasize the scientific method, the understanding between science and society, and the use of handson and inquiry-based instruction in the laboratory. Horticultural Science is now an applied science course that includes the use of hypothesis formulation, experimentation, observation, data collection, summation and presentation in scientific format of reports of at least three laboratory exercises, as well as extensive general observation and presentation in both written and oral format. It teaches science in the context of everyday interaction with the environment in which the student lives, the interior and exterior plants that surrounds the student at CSU, and the controversies as well as the health aspects that surround the production of foods derived from plants that require intensive cultivation. Examples of such issues include sustainability, the organic movement, genetically modified organisms, ground water pollution form overfertilization, and water usage for landscaping and golf courses in a water short region. A review of the revisions as noted above and the use of technology in teaching the course will be presented.

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In this symposium we will explore the unique capabilities, differences, and requirements of authoring and distributing information as electronic media rather than as the printed page. What is meant by “authoring for the interested learner”? How can the information base be constructed to be “inquiry driven”? Can information be developed as concise answers, chunks, or electronically digitized information packages to be used to support decisions on specific questions? What is meant by “authoring once” for use across alternative media platforms (WWW, CD-ROM, printed page) and for linkage (use) into alternative documents? How can we get groups of educators to collaborate on a “global information system”? Can we establish effective national “peer review” systems for educational information? What can we do with the current electronic information technology? What would we like to be able to do? These and other questions will be discussed by educators from diverse disciplines, ranging through library information science, education, communications, horticulture, and crop and soil science. We invite you to join us in developing this symposium (subjects, speakers) by checking its evolution under the “symposia” link at http://www.forages.css.orst.edu/AAAS-PD/ and sending your ideas by e-mail to the moderators or individual speakers.

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The solid waste streams specific to soilless horticulture (substrate slabs, propagation cubes, and plastic films to cover the soil and to wrap the substrate slabs) were determined quantitatively and qualitatively, while methods to reduce these waste streams without yield loss were evaluated in a case study applied to the Flanders region of Belgium and based on an explorative inquiry among horticulturists. Rockwool used for substrate slabs and propagation cubes was found to be by far the most important waste stream. The use of long-lived, polyurethane (PUR) slabs could reduce the total slab waste stream by ≈90%. Moreover, if substrate blocks are used instead of slabs, this reduction could even increase to 95%. The introduction of new cultivation techniques could further reduce the required volume of substrate slabs. Rockwool propagation cubes could be successfully replaced with peat pots that can be composted after 1 year of use. The reuse of plastic films to cover the soil or to wrap the substrate slabs cannot be considered because of the danger of plant diseases. Due to the susceptibility of these films to contamination, they cannot yet be recycled on a large scale. The use of thinner films and the cultivation on profiled concrete floors were found to allow drastic reductions (of up to 80%) of the quantity of plastics used.

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Two separate consumer-marketing studies were conducted between 30 Oct. and 2 Dec. 2002 to determine consumer awareness and potential demand for edamame [Glycine max (L.) Merrill]. The first study consisted of a sensory evaluation that included 113 participants who tasted and rated three edamame cultivars based on firmness and overall appeal and then ranked the beans in order of preference at The Pennsylvania State University, University Park Campus. To estimate demand, the participants answered questions regarding their likelihood to purchase edamame after the sensory evaluation. The second study, a telephone survey, was administered by a marketing firm to determine consumer awareness of edamame as well as their produce purchasing habits. Responses were collected from 401 consumers within the Metro-Philadelphia area. Consumer reaction to the sensory evaluation was positive, and after reading about the health benefits, a majority of consumers (92%) indicated they would likely purchase edamame and serve it in a meal whereas 89% gave this response after only sampling the edamame beans. When responses were compared among cultivars, overall liking for `Green Legend' (6.29; 1 = extremely dislike; 9 = like extremely) was significantly lower than for `Kenko' (6.84); however, neither cultivar was significantly different from `Early Hakucho' (6.62). Participants also rated `Kenko' as having a firmness that was `just about right'. Verbal comments from participants leaving the evaluation site included interest in purchasing edamame and inquiries as to where it could be purchased in the vicinity of the university. Telephone survey participants also expressed a willingness to purchase edamame and serve it in a meal after hearing about the potential health benefits (66%). Based on consumer responses to selected telephone survey questions, three distinct marketing segments were created. Potential purchasers (58% of participants), consisted of consumers who were more likely to consider the importance of the nutritional content of vegetables they purchased (73%), included the greatest percent of consumers who had purchased soy or soy-based products (70%), and were very likely (51%) and somewhat likely (46%) to eat edamame after learning about the health benefits. The second largest segment of participants characterized as unlikely edamame eaters (22% of participants) consisted of individuals who were very likely (20%) and somewhat likely (43%) to purchase vegetables they had never eaten before if evidence suggested that it might decrease the risk of cancer and/or other diseases. However, within this group, none of the participants were either very likely or somewhat likely to eat edamame after being told about the health benefits. The last group, characterized as requires convincing (20% of participants), consisted of individuals who were the least likely to base produce-purchasing decisions on the nutritional content of vegetables. After learning about health benefits specific to edamame, 8% of these participants were very likely and 48% were somewhat likely to eat edamame. Hence, separate marketing strategies may need to be developed to target these distinct segments based on interest in eating edamame, importance of nutritional information, and current vegetable purchasing habits.

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ranges from a width of 1.0 cm at the base of the leaf to ≈0.7 to 0.8 cm at a distance equal between the leaf base and the leaf tip. The midrib gradually narrows to 1 to 2 mm as it intersects the dark margin near the leaf tip. The midrib on the adaxial

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