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of it being used in vitro. The primary objective of this study was to determine if EtBr included in the tissue culture medium would induce new phenotypes in Indiangrass. A secondary objective was to select and test mutations of horticultural value

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Abstract

Dry seeds of common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris L., were treated with 10 and 20 kilo roentgen (kR) of gamma rays to induce plant mutations suitable for use as genetic markers in mapping studies. The 10 and 20 kR treatments produced a total of 9 marker mutations from a total of 412 separate M2 progenies. The mutations changed leaf shape and texture, and produced dwarfism and various chlorophyll deficiencies. Inheritance characteristics were determined and the mutant markers are described. The round leaf (rnd), dark green savoy leaf (dgs), diamond leaf (dia), chlorotic cup leaf (cc), and stipelless lanceolate leaf (sl) mutants are adequately described by their names. Dwarf out-crossing (do) has small leaves, short internodes and pods, and a natural out-crossing frequency of 10%–56%. Chlorotic stem (cs) has a milky white stems, while silver leaf (sil) has its leaf color modified by a silvery reflectance. Progressive chlorosis (pc) has leaves which emerge normal green in color, but become chlorotic with age. The relationship of these mutants to previously reported mutants is discussed.

Open Access

The chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflora Tzvelev.) cultivars `Dark Charm', `Salmon Charm', `Coral Charm' and `Dark Bronze Charm' are either radiation-induced mutants or spontaneous sports of `Charm' and constitute a family or series of plants that primarily differ in flower color. These cultivars, which were difficult to differentiate genetically by DNA amplification fingerprinting (DAF), were easily identified by using arbitrary signatures from amplification profiles (ASAP). Genomic DNA was first amplified with three standard octamer arbitrary primers, all of which produced monomorphic profiles. Products from each of these DNA fingerprints were subsequently reamplified using four minihairpin decamer primers. The 12 primer combinations produced signatures containing ≈37% polymorphic character loci, which were used to estimate genetic relationships between cultivars. Forty-six (32%) unique amplification products were associated with individual cultivars. The number of ASAP polymorphisms detected provided an estimate of the mutation rate in the mutant cultivars, ranging from 0.03% to 1.6% of nucleotide changes within an average of 18 kb of arbitrary amplified DAF sequence. The ASAP technique permits the clear genetic identification of somatic mutants and radiation-induced sports that are genetically highly homogeneous and should facilitate marker assisted breeding and protection of plant breeders rights of varieties or cultivars.

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Dry seed of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) breeding line S-593 was treated with 200 Gy of gamma radiation, and M2 seed was produced. The seed was planted at Prosser, Wash., and selection was made for plants with greatly reduced seed set. The inheritance of one of the selections for possible male sterility mutation was studied in F2, F3, and backcross generations. This character is controlled by a single recessive gene, for which the symbol ms-1 is proposed. Plants carrying ms-l/ms-1 produce well-filled pods after manual pollination with pollen from normal plants, but produce no seed when protected from insect pollination in greenhouse and field environments. Uses for this mutant are discussed.

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Four chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflora) spontaneous and radiation-induced sports from the cultivar `Charm' and phenotypically differing only in flower color were individually characterized using arbitrary signatures from amplification profiles (ASAP). ASAP analysis is based on a two-step arbitrary primer amplification procedure that produces “fi ngerprints of fingerprints.” In the first step, `Charm', `Dark Charm', `Dark Bronze Charm', `Salmon Charm', and `Coral Charm' were fingerprinted by DNA amplification fingerprinting (DAF) with standard octamer arbitrary primers. Diluted products from three monomorphic fingerprints for each cultivar were subsequently reamplified using four minihairpin decamer primers. Each of the 12 ASAP profiles revealed polymorphic loci that were used to uniquely identify cultivars and estimate genetic relationships. The ASAP technique permits identification of previously genetically indistinguishable plant material and should facilitate marker assisted breeding and protection of ownership rights.

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Four chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflora) spontaneous and radiation-induced sports from the cultivar `Charm' and phenotypically differing only in flower color were individually characterized using arbitrary signatures from amplification profiles (ASAP). ASAP analysis is based on a two-step arbitrary primer amplification procedure that produces “fingerprints of fingerprints.” In the first step, `Charm', `Dark Charm', `Dark Bronze Charm', `Salmon Charm', and `Coral Charm' were fingerprinted by DNA amplification fingerprinting (DAF) with standard octamer arbitrary primers. Diluted products from three monomorphic fingerprints for each cultivar were subsequently reamplified using four minihairpin decamer primers. Each of the 12 ASAP profiles revealed about 30% polymorphic loci and some were used to uniquely identify cultivars and estimate genetic relationships. The ASAP technique permits identification of previously genetically indistinguishable plant material and should facilitate marker assisted breeding and protection of ownership rights.

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‘Villafranca’ lemons in a pollinating environment, we induced mutations by exposing buds (mV 1 ) to 60 Co gamma irradiation (13.3 Gy/min; Spiegel-Roy and Vardi, 1989 ). The irradiated budwoods were then grafted onto Troyer rootstocks. To avoid the formation

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ornamental plants with new characteristics. If limited natural variation exists, mutation breeding can improve a crop by artificially inducing genetic variation. This breeding technique has been shown to cause phenotypic variations in color, flower shape

Open Access

the most frequently used method to develop direct mutant varieties ( Ahloowalia et al., 2004 ). Several reports on the induced mutation of Saintpaulia using physical mutagens such as ion beam, x-ray, and gamma ray were published in the past

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, chemical mutagens such as EMS are useful for inducing missense or nonsense mutations, resulting in change-of-function or occasionally loss-of-function mutants ( Shikazono et al., 2005 ). Seeds are typically treated with a buffer solution containing EMS

Open Access