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1. Effect of indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) concentration (0, 30, 60, and 90 mg·L −1 ) and cuttings type (softwood and semihardwood) on cutting survival (CS), rooting, number of roots (NOR), dry weight of roots (DWR), and root length (RL) of ‘Yabukita

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exogenous auxin for the rooting of stem cuttings ( Ramos et al., 2003 ). The rooting method used for guarana seedling production suggests 70% shading, intermittent overhead mist, and the application of 2000 ppm indole-3-butyric acid (IBA); however, this

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, and 100% for the 3, 8, or 30 mg·g −1 plants. Table 1. The response of Zamia furfuracea and Zamia integrifolia stem cuttings to indole-3-butyric acid concentrations of 0, 3, 8, 16, or 30 mg·g −1 . N = 25. The Z. integrifolia IBA study lasted 356

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. A representation of the two-factor indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) formulation × IBA concentration interaction. Root and shoot quality are presented on a 0–4 relative scale for ‘I3’ hemp stem cuttings, with 4 being the best quality. A rating of 0 for

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Frangipani (Plumeria hybrid `Donald Angus') cuttings immersed in hot water (49C for 10 min) followed by 0.8% indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) basal treatment (hot water + IBA) had greater root length and weight compared to the nontreated control, hot water, or IBA treatment alone. Greater percentage of rooting and number of roots per cutting were observed for hot-water-treated + IBA-treated cuttings compared to the non-treated control and hot-water treatment alone. In a second study, Dracaena fragrans (L.) Ker-Gawl. `Massangeana', D. deremensis Engl. `Warneckii', D. deremensis Engl. `Janet Craig', D. marginata Lam., and cape jasmine (Gardenia jasminoides Ellis) cuttings displayed results similar to those observed with Plumeria cuttings. In addition to enhancing rooting, hot water + IBA also stimulated the number of shoots per cutting on anthurium (Anthurium andraeanum Andre `Marian Seefurth'), croton [Codiaeum variegatum (L.) Blume var. pictum (Lodd.) Mull. Arg.], D. marginata, D. fragrans, Plumeria, and ti (Cordyline terminalis `Ti') cuttings.

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Abstract

The percentage of rooting and survival of 1-year old non-juvenile pecan branches air-layered 50 days after bud break and left on the tree for about 5 1/2 months increased as indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) was increased from 0 to 3%. After 1 season’s growth, maximum survival occurred with air-layers that had been treated with 3% IBA. Shoot growth of the air-layers was relatively short.

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The influence of root initiation medium pH on root formation was investigated in relation to uptake and metabolism of applied IBA in microcuttings of Malus ×domestica Borkh. `Gala' and `Triple Red Delicious'. Root formation and uptake of H 3-IBA were related inversely to root initiation medium pH. Maximum root count (10.3 roots) and IBA uptake were observed at pH 4.0. Regardless of pH, overall root count of `Gala' was higher (13.5 roots) than `Triple Red Delicious' (4 roots). Uptake of IBA was highest at pH 4.0 for `Gala' (1.7% uptake) and at pH 4 and 5 for `Triple Red Delicious' (0.75% uptake). Metabolism of IBA was the same regardless of root initiation medium pH or cultivar examined. One-half of the IBA taken up was converted to a compound that coeluted with IBAsp during high-performance liquid chromatography. Apparently, pH regulates root formation by affecting IBA uptake but not metabolism. The level of auxin in tissue appeared unrelated to root formation between genotypes. Chemical names used: 1H-indole-3-butyric acid (IBA); 5-H 3-indole-3-butyric acid (H 3-IBA); indole-3-butrylaspartic acid (IBAsp).

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1 Assistant professor. To whom reprint requests should be addressed; e-mail Jyotsna@ufl.edu . 2 Professor. 3 Biological scientist. We extend our gratitude to John Zadakis for providing technical assistance throughout this study.

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Involvement of pH and IBA on adventitious root initiation was investigated with Malus domestica Borkh. microcuttings. The pH of unbuffered root initiation medium (RIM) increased from 5.6 to 7 within 2 days. Buffering with 2[N-morpholino] ethanesulfonic acid (MES) adjusted to specific pHs with potassium hydroxide prevented pH changes and resulted in a 2-fold higher root count at pH 5.5 compared to pH 7 or unbuffered medium. As pH decreased, lower concentrations of IBA were required to increase root counts. Colorimetric measurement of IBA in buffered RIM showed greater IBA loss and higher root count were associated with lower pH levels in all cultivars. This suggests that IBA loss from RIM depends on medium pH, which affects root count. Root count differences between easy-to-root through difficult-to-root cultivars were not consistent with amount of IBA loss from RIM. Cultivar differences in root count could not be explained solely by IBA loss from RIM.

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top in Feb. 2014 were trimmed to 12 cm long. Auxin [1-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA), indole 3-butyric acid (IBA), and indole 3-acetic acid (IAA)] powders (Sigma-Aldrich, Shanghai, China) were dissolved in a small amount of ethanol (analytical reagent

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