farmers and farmworkers, 2) upgraded skills needed to work with this underserved audience, and 3) used this new skill set in program planning. Materials and methods First workshop: The science of inclusion. Twenty-two Penn State Extension educators
Elsa Sánchez, Maria Gorgo-Gourovitch, and Lee Stivers
Michael V. Mickelbart
maple and is also likely the case in other red and red × silver maple hybrids with similar lamina:petiole ratios. Likewise in kiwifruit ( Actinidia deliciosa Chev.), although lamina and petiole nutrient concentrations were different, the inclusion of
The effects of incorporating plant growth regulators into the priming solution on low temperature germination and emergence percentage performance of sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum `Demre') seeds before and after seed storage were investigated. Seeds were primed in 3% KNO3 solution for 6 days at 25 °C in darkness containing one of the following: 1, 3, 5, or 10 μm methyl jasmonate (MeJA) or 0.05, 0.1, 0.5, or 1 mm acetyl salicylic acid (ASA). Following priming, seeds were either immediately subjected to germination and emergence tests at 15 °C or stored at 4 °C for 1 month after which they were subjected to germination test at 15 °C. Priming pepper seeds in the presence or absence of plant growth regulators in general improved final germination percentage (FGP), germination rate (G50) and germination synchrony (G10-90) at 15 °C compared to nonprimed seeds which had an FGP of 44%, G50 of 7.3 days and G10-90 of 7.3 days. Priming seeds in KNO3 solution containing 0.1 mm of ASA resulted in the highest germination percentage (91%), fastest germination rate (G50 = 2.2 days) and the most synchronous germination (G10-90 = 6.1 days). Emergence percentages were the highest for the seeds primed in the presence of 0.1 mm ASA (85%) and 3 μm MeJA (84%) while nonprimed seeds had an emergence percentage of 40%. Fastest emergence rates (E50) were also obtained from seeds primed in KNO3 supplemented with 3 μm MeJA (E50 = 15.2 days) and 0.1 mm ASA (E50 = 15.2 days). Shoot fresh and dry weights of pepper seedlings were significantly affected by priming treatments and priming in the presence of 0.1 mm ASA resulted in highest seedling shoot fresh and dry weights. Although all priming treatments improved germination performance of pepper seeds at 15 °C following 1 month of storage, inclusion of 0.1 mm ASA into the priming solution resulted in the highest germination percentage (84%) and germination rate (G50 = 3.8 days). These results indicate that priming seeds in 0.1 mm of ASA or 3 μm MeJA incorporated into the KNO3 solution can be used as an effective method to improve low temperature performance of sweet pepper seeds and that these seeds can be stored for 1 month at 4 °C and still exhibit improved germination performance at 15 °C.
Cinta Calvet, Amèlia Camprubí, and Rodrigo Rodríguez-Kábana
Ahmet Korkmaz, Mehmet Nuri Nas, Nusret Ozbay, and Iskender Tiryaki
The effects of stratification and priming on germination and emergence performance of narrowleafed purple coneflower (Echinacea angustifolia) seeds were investigated. Seeds were pre-chilled for 3 weeks at 4 ± 0.5 °C (39.2 ± 0.9 °F) in light or primed for 3 days at 20 ± 0.5 °C (68.0 ± 0.9 °F) in darkness in Nas and Read medium (NRM) or in 2% potassium nitrate (KNO3) supplemented with 3 or 5 μm 1-aminocyclopropane carboxylic acid (ACC) or 500 mg·L-1 (ppm) or 1000 mg·L-1 gibberellic acid (GA3). Following stratification and priming, seeds were subjected to germination and emergence tests at 25 ± 0.5 °C (77.0 ± 0.9 °F). Priming the seeds in NRM or KNO3 containing 3 μm ACC gave the highest germination percentages with 78% and 80%, respectively. Stratification alone increased germination to 69% compared to nontreated seeds, which had the lowest germination percentage of 57%. Emergence was enhanced by priming seeds in the presence of 3 μm ACC (75%) compared to stratified seeds (62%), while nontreated seeds had the lowest emergence percentage of 26%. These results indicate that priming in the presence of ACC might be an alternative to lengthy stratification treatments to break the dormancy and improve the germination and emergence of narrow-leafed purple coneflower seeds.
Michael R. Evans and Leisha Vance
containing up to 30% ground feather fiber. However, no information was reported regarding how the inclusion of the feather fiber affected the physical properties of the substrates. The objective of this study was to determine whether the incorporation of
Robert E. Paull and Gail Uruu
-shipped products, cartons were also stored at either 12 or 22 °C for 6 d after irradiation. Treatments were performed on multiple days over several months and followed the same protocol unless otherwise stated. Sachets of 1-MCP as an inclusion complex in alpha
Haijie Dou, Genhua Niu, Mengmeng Gu, and Joseph Masabni
., 2004 ). Moreover, the inclusion of G wavelengths in growth light sources would make plants appear a normal green color instead of purplish, which makes the visual assessment of physiological disorders easier and offers psychological benefits to farm
Gayle M. Volk and Christopher M. Richards
:2006-2010-horttalks-presentations&catid=44:conference-presentations&Itemid=146 >. Workshop participants are plant explorers who have traveled throughout the world to select novel and representative plant materials for inclusion in the USDA-ARS National Plant Germplasm