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impacts their awareness of neonicotinoid insecticides. In-store promotions and purchase likelihood. Concerning consumer preferences for in-store plant labels, most participants (44%) preferred “pollinator friendly,” followed by “plants for pollinators” (34

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optimize the use of fresh floral products as gifts, what are commonly referred to as the four Ps of marketing must be explored, including product, price, promotion and placement, because each plays a role in driving purchasing decisions ( Kerin et al., 2009

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promotion is when they are in the store, interested in specific merchandise, but have not yet decided to purchase that merchandise. POS materials can serve this promotional function, but require printing and display—additional costs and steps. Electronic

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attributes of low-input grasses. Providing photos or exhibiting in-store samples of low-input turfgrass could help eliminate the negative impression and attract both Reluctant Homeowners and Willing Adopters . Large gardening centers, local gardening

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Delaware is among the largest producers of lima beans in the United States, having more than 10,000 acres in this crop. The plants are raised from seeds, but seeds are notably prone to injury during handling. The seed has little or no endosperm and relies on reserve food materials in the cotyledons. Lima beans are legumes, and the seeds store nitrogenous compounds. Nickel is implicated in nitrogen metabolism, and nickel is now implicated as an essential mineral nutrient element. With the variable rate of germination of lima bean seeds, our objective was set to determine the effect of nickel on seedling development of the lima bean plant. Lima bean seeds were soaked for various periods in 10 solutions from 0 to 500 ppm nickel chloride. Soaking for 1 h in 100 ppm nickel chloride solution was determined to be the best treatment. The 100 ppm treatment then became the standard treatment for lima bean seeds. Hence, seeds were treated with distilled water of the 100 ppm nickel chloride. The results are that the nickel chloride significantly improved the rate of germination of lima bean seeds. Germination rates were improved from 60% ± 5% to 76% ± 3%. The total effect of treatments with nickel chloride varied from one batch of seeds to another; however, promotion of germiantion was significant. Osmoregulation and seed priming as well as stimulation of nitrogen metabolism by nickel are possible explanations of the positive effects of nickel chloride.

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they are administered by boards of growers, shellers, handlers, and other industry representatives ( Becker, 2004 ). Implemented in 1992, the Pecan Promotion and Research Act of 1990 established a Pecan Marketing Board to carry out a coordinated

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14853. The cost of publishing this paper was defrayed in part by the payment of page charges. Under postal regulations, this paper therefore must be hereby marked advertisement solely to indicate this fact.

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AVG applied alone to `Gala' and `Jonagold' apples delayed maturity and the onset of the ethylene climacteric and delayed red color development. AVG followed by ethephon delayed maturity and the onset of the ethylene climacteric, but promoted red color development of both cultivars. Ethephon applied alone advanced maturity, ethylene production, ripening, and red color development compared to AVG alone. In other studies, the ripening-related effects of these treatments were reflected in the storability of fruit in CA storage. AVG - and AVG + ethephon-treated fruit were still at preclimacteric ethylene levels after 6 months in CA storage, with excellent retention of flesh firmness and shelf-life, while ethephon and control fruits had significantly higher ethylene levels and softened more during storage and shelf-life evaluation. Collectively, our results indicate that an ethephon application following AVG treatment may be useful to overcome the delay of red color development of apples treated with AVG only and that this can be achieved without overly stimulating fruit ripening. Thus, a once-over harvest of `Gala' and `Jonagold' apples may be achieved with a significant reduction in harvest costs. We attribute the promotion of red color development of apples receiving AVG treatment with a follow-up application of ethephon to the action of ethylene temporally-released from ethephon stimulating the development of the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway, while AVG inhibits the development of the endogenous ethylene climacteric. Inhibiting endogenous ethylene production delays fruit from producing their own ethylene. We attribute maturation uniformity to the action of AVG allowing the less mature fruits to gain maturity while slowing maturity development of the more mature fruits. Improved storability of AVG + ethephon-treated fruit is attributed to the same ethylene-related phenomena.

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Texas Superstar ® is a marketing assistance program that involves the promotion of outstanding plants that have proven performance in most regions of Texas. From the beginning, this program has represented a partnership between the Texas A

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An in-store marketing study was conducted in Fall 2004 to determine consumer demand for fresh, inshell edamame [Glycinemax (L.) Merrill]. Each Wednesday from 1 Sept. to 6 Oct. 2004, thirty 12-ounce plastic clamshells were placed in the produce department of four supermarkets in metro-Philadelphia, Pa. Packaged edamame remained in the supermarkets for 1 week and was replaced with fresh product when the next weekly delivery was made. A sample recipe, a follow-up survey and an addressed, postage-paid reply envelope were attached to the bottom of each clamshell. The survey was used to determine consumer perceptions, interest in Pennsylvania-grown edamame and the criteria they consider when choosing new produce items sold at supermarkets for themselves and their families. Of the 480 clamshells that were delivered, 312 were purchased. The total number of clamshells purchased weekly ranged from 64 to 87, while the number of clamshells purchased weekly at individual stores ranged from 6 to 30. Thirty-three surveys were returned with all participants responding that they had heard of or were familiar with edamame prior to purchasing the container. Of those who responded, 78.8% had purchased edamame before. Based on the total number of packages sold, a potential demand for fresh, inshell edamame exists among consumers in metro-Philadelphia. Results from this study will be used to assist small-acreage growers interested in marketing specialty vegetable crops, such as edamame, to chain supermarkets. By understanding consumer interests, we are able to more effectively determine which type of packaging and promotional materials best attract the attention of potential buyers.

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