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Justin A. Schulze, Jason D. Lattier, and Ryan N. Contreras

immature seed. Sucrose concentration is also an important media component to be considered when performing embryo rescue, as immature embryos often require lower osmotic potential than mature embryos ( Trigiano and Gray, 2011 ). Once in vitro germination

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Alexandre Bosco de Oliveira, Wagner A. Vendrame, and Luciana Cardoso Nogueira Londe

). In jatropha, in vitro seed cryopreservation protocols have been developed, but some problems related to this procedure have been reported, such as decrease in seed germination percentage ( Salomão et al., 2016 ), low development of explants in vitro

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He Li and Donglin Zhang

incompatibility. A better and faster method to germinate seeds of mountain laurel hybrids is needed to speed up breeding of new cultivars. In vitro culture is the cultivation of plant tissues or organs under aseptic conditions in an artificial medium of known

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Dave I. Thompson, Neil O. Anderson, and Johannes Van Staden

) dwarf phenotypes as container subjects. The aim of this study, as a means of addressing the delayed commercialization of the genus by releasing novel horticultural traits, was to establish the amenability of in vitro-germinated seeds to colchicine

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Michael W. Bairu, Manoj G. Kulkarni, Renée A. Street, Rofhiwa B. Mulaudzi, and Johannes Van Staden

-promoting substances, and watering frequencies on seed germination and seedling growth of A. ferox ; and 2) to assess the applicability of an in vitro propagation protocol developed for other Aloe spp. Materials and Methods Seed collection. Dried seeds of A. ferox

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Claudia A. Espinosa-Leal and Silverio Garcia-Lara

this work was to evaluate the effect of SI with water and the addition of SSW to the culture media on the in vitro germination and initial seedling development of krantz aloe. Materials and methods Seeds (152 total) were obtained from the mature fruit

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Bekir Şan, Adnan Nurhan Yildirim, and Fatma Yildirim

seeds in some species such as Arabidopsis, caper, and hazelnut ( Aygun et al., 2009 ; Debeaujon and Koornneef, 2000 ; Soyler and Khawar, 2007 ). Additionally, to overcome seed dormancy, in vitro germination was also successfully used in strawberry

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Yung-I Lee, Nean Lee, Edward C. Yeung, and Mei-Chu Chung

This investigation documents the key anatomical features in embryo development of Cypripedium formosanum Hayata, in association with the ability of embryos to germinate in vitro, and examines the effects of culture media and seed pretreatments on seed germination. A better understanding of zygotic embryogenesis for the Cypripedium L. species would provide insights into subsequent germination events and aid in the in vitro propagation of these endangered species. In seeds collected at 60 days after pollination (DAP), soon after fertilization, no germination was recorded. The best overall germination was found at 90 DAP (≈70%), at which time early globular to globular embryos with a single-celled suspensors can be observed. After 135 DAP, the seeds germinated poorly. At this time the inner integument shrinks and forms a tight layer, which encloses the embryo, the so-called “carapace.” Using Nile red stain, a cuticular substance was detected in the carapace, which may play a role in the impermeability of the mature seed and may help the seeds survive in the stringent environment. At maturity (after 210 DAP), the embryo proper has an average size of eight cells along its length and six cells across the width. Lipids and proteins are the main storage products within the embryo. To improve seed germination, experiments were conducted to test the suitability of various media and pretreatments of seeds. When different media were used, except for the Harvais medium at 120 DAP, there was no significant difference in seed germination at three different developmental stages tested. Soaking mature seeds in 1% NaOCl or treating them with ultrasound may slightly increase the germination percentage. For seed germination, our results indicate that the timing of seed collection outweighs the composition of medium and the seed pretreatments.

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Kenneth W. Mudge and Chin-Chang Chu

In vitro asymbiotic seed germination, subculture, and outplanting of orchids is presented as a laboratory exercise suitable for students of plant propagation or tissue culture. Dendrobium antennatum (Lindley), Phalaenopsis (Blume) white hybrid, or both, are used in this exercise because they flower predictably in the greenhouse, are reliable for seed production, and germinate and grow rapidly in vitro. The exercises can be used to instruct students in the skills involved in orchid seed sterilization, sowing, and culture, as well as instruct students in the unique features of orchid reproductive biology and symbiosis. A schedule is suggested for stock plant flower pollination, capsule harvest, seed sowing, and seedling subculture so that the necessary plant material is available for students to sow, subculture, and outplant seedlings during a single laboratory session.

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Kimberly A. Pickens, James M. Affolter, Hazel Y. Wetzstein, and Jan H.D. Wolf

Tillandsia eizii is an epiphytic bromeliad that due to over-collection, habitat destruction, and physiological constraints has declined to near threatened status. This species exhibits high mortality in the wild, and seed are characterized by low percentages of germination. As a means to conserve this species, in vitro culture protocols were developed to enhance seed germination and seedling growth. A sterilization protocol using 70% ethanol for 2 minutes followed by 2.6% NaOCl for 40 minutes disinfested seed and promoted seedling growth. Sucrose incorporated into the culture medium had no effect on germination or growth, while NAA inhibited growth, but not germination. Cultures maintained under a 16-hour photoperiod at 22 °C exhibited greater growth than those grown at 30 °C. Seed that germinated in the dark remained etiolated and failed to develop even after transfer to light conditions. Plants grown in vitro were successfully acclimatized and transferred to the greenhouse. Over 86% survival and rapid growth were obtained with either an all-pine-bark medium, or a mixture of 2 redwood bark: 2 fir bark: 2 potting mix: 1 perlite. This demonstrated that in vitro culture of seed may be used to rapidly produce large numbers of T. eizii, and thus can be used for the conservation and reintroduction of this species.