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Patrick J. Conner

of artificial pollination and pollen storage protocols. Germination tests have generally been considered to be the best in vitro indicator of pollen usefulness ( Galleta, 1983 ). The in vitro germination test assesses the viability of a pollen sample

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Justin A. Schulze, Jason D. Lattier, and Ryan N. Contreras

associated with overcoming dormancy. This hormone was used in successful in vitro germination ( Şan et al., 2014 ) and embryo rescue ( Kukharchyk and Kastrickaya, 2006 ) media in Prunus and could be an essential component to successful germination of

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Alexandre Bosco de Oliveira, Wagner A. Vendrame, and Luciana Cardoso Nogueira Londe

). In jatropha, in vitro seed cryopreservation protocols have been developed, but some problems related to this procedure have been reported, such as decrease in seed germination percentage ( Salomão et al., 2016 ), low development of explants in vitro

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He Li and Donglin Zhang

incompatibility. A better and faster method to germinate seeds of mountain laurel hybrids is needed to speed up breeding of new cultivars. In vitro culture is the cultivation of plant tissues or organs under aseptic conditions in an artificial medium of known

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Natalia R. Dolce, Luis A. Mroginski, and Hebe Y. Rey

produce low or no germination, in vitro techniques may greatly enhance germination and growth rates by optimizing culture conditions and media ( Fay, 1992 ). The embryo rescue technique has been used for over 50 years to accelerate the maturation of

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Dave I. Thompson, Neil O. Anderson, and Johannes Van Staden

) used colchicine [50 to 250 μM; 0.002% to 0.01% (w/v)] to induce polyploids in pulse-treated hypocotyls of in vitro-germinated Watsonia lepida N.E.Br with a maximum success rate of 3%. The genus Watsonia Mill. (Iridaceae) comprises 52 southern

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Michael W. Bairu, Manoj G. Kulkarni, Renée A. Street, Rofhiwa B. Mulaudzi, and Johannes Van Staden

-promoting substances, and watering frequencies on seed germination and seedling growth of A. ferox ; and 2) to assess the applicability of an in vitro propagation protocol developed for other Aloe spp. Materials and Methods Seed collection. Dried seeds of A. ferox

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Bekir Şan, Adnan Nurhan Yildirim, and Fatma Yildirim

seeds in some species such as Arabidopsis, caper, and hazelnut ( Aygun et al., 2009 ; Debeaujon and Koornneef, 2000 ; Soyler and Khawar, 2007 ). Additionally, to overcome seed dormancy, in vitro germination was also successfully used in strawberry

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Claudia A. Espinosa-Leal and Silverio Garcia-Lara

in nature and low GPs of 0% to 25% (traditional) and 60% to 70% (in vitro) ( Cristiano et al., 2016 ). Studies have investigated the optimization of germination conditions for bitter aloe ( Aloe ferox ) and krantz aloe in petri dishes without

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Ing-Jiun Tom Wu, G.L. Wheeler, and F.H. Huang

Scarification treatments (a control, a 10-minute vacuum, or a 1.5-minute ultrasound), different media (modified Norstog and Van Waes) and growth regulators [benzyladenine (BA) at 0, 1, 1.5, or 2 mg·L-1 and 6-(r,r-dimethylallylamino)-purine riboside (2iPR) at 0, 1, 1.5 or 2 mg·L-1] were used in combination to increase seed germination of Cypripedium calceolus var. parviflorum. Seeds treated with ultrasound had higher germination (58.0%) than those treated with vacuum (27.4%) or controls (19.2%). Germination rates increased with 2iPR level and reached a maximum between 1.5 and 2 mg·L-1. Seeds on Van Waes medium, which were not transferred to fresh medium after germination, had a severe browning problem causing many protocorms to die. Those on Norstog medium continued to grow into seedlings with less browning. Germination rates of Calopogon tuberosus × Calopogon `Adventure' and Liparis liliifolia were determined on the different media and growth regulator treatments. Multiple shoots of Calopogon developed from single seeds on media containing growth regulators. Flower buds formed in vitro on Calopogon in media containing 1 mg·L-1 or higher BA 5 months after germination. L. Iiliifolia seeds in Norstog medium had a higher proportion of germination than those in Van Waes medium.