In 2008, ionizing irradiation was approved by the U.S. FDA for use on fresh Iceberg lettuce and spinach at doses not exceeding 4 kGy to enhance microbial safety and to extend shelf life ( FDA, 2008 ). Both whole head lettuce and fresh-cut lettuce
Xuetong Fan, Kimberly J. Sokorai, Brendan A. Niemira, Robert S. Mills, and Mark Yueqian Zhen
Germán V. Sandoya, Krishna Subbarao, and Ryan Hayes
heirloom lettuce cultivars (cvs.) ( Hayes et al., 2007 ) and resistant iceberg germplasm was bred using ‘La Brillante’ as a parent ( Hayes et al., 2011a , 2015 ). It is expected that widespread production of race 1 resistant cvs. will cause race 2 strains
Xuetong Fan and Kimberly J.B. Sokorai
radiation is known to effectively eliminate human pathogens such as Escherichia coli O157:H7 on fresh produce ( Niemira and Fan, 2006 ). In 2008, ionizing irradiation was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for use on fresh Iceberg lettuce
R. Andrew Schofield, Jennifer R. DeEll, and Dennis P. Murr
Traditional hand compression firmness scores of iceberg lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) heads were compared with force-deformation data collected from parallel-plate compression tests conducted with a universal testing machine. Sample deformation was measured over a load range of 30 to 40 N. A quadratic response surface best described the relationship between hand firmness scores (1 to 5 scale) and three measurements of sample deformation (mm). Sample deformation was as precise as hand compression in measuring lettuce firmness, and it provided improved reproducibility by eliminating much of the human error. Although adequate for most firm heads, the predictive ability of the statistical model was weak for soft heads (when the hand firmness score was <2), and for heads with inconsistencies in firmness because of uneven leaf distribution. The minimum sample size required to determine accurately the mean firmness score (±0.5 units) of a population of harvested lettuce was ≈20 heads. This may be a disadvantage, since sampling one head requires ≈1.5 minutes. Overall, the instrument-based method measures lettuce firmness as precisely as the hand compression method, and provides a standardized, objective measurement for postharvest researchers when exchanging or reporting firmness data.
R. Andrew Schofield, Jennifer R. DeEll, and Dennis P. Murr
Chlorophyll fluorescence responds to a range of environmental stresses that affect horticultural crops. This technique has been used successfully to evaluate the quality of commodities after exposure to a number of postharvest stresses such as chilling, heat, and atmospheric stress. As well, chlorophyll fluorescence measurements have been incorporated as the main characteristics in shelf-life prediction models. Our objective was to evaluate the use of chlorophyll fluorescence measurements at harvest to predict the shelf-life of `Iceberg' lettuce. It was hypothesized that storage potential is influenced by the degree of stress induced by field conditions and that different cultivars, although grown under the same conditions, experience varying degrees of stress that can be detected by fluorescence measurements at harvest, even in the absence of visual differences in quality. The utility of fluorescence measurements was limited by inconsistencies in the development of the heads, such as maturity and leaf formation, and by variation among different areas of the same leaf. Fluorescence data from a homogeneous group of heads revealed that the variation associated with different areas of the same leaf was larger than that associated with measurements from different heads. Also, fluorescence readings from one leaf differed from those taken from any non-adjacent leaves. These sources of variation, along with strong cultivar-dependant differences in the fluorescence signal, were quite large, and hence, any trends in fluorescence measurements related to storage potential were not observed. Therefore, chlorophyll fluorescence at harvest does not appear to be a good predictor of lettuce storability.
Jorge M. Fonseca
The effect of moisture conditions on yield and microbial quality of iceberg lettuce was investigated. Iceberg lettuce cvs. Honcho II and Sahara grown at the Yuma Agricultural Center were evaluated for weight, diameter, microbial population, and postharvest quality, either following different irrigation termination schedules or before/after a rainfall event. Two trials were conducted with early (24 or 18 days before harvest), middle (16 or 8 days before harvest) and late (6 or 4 days before harvest) irrigation termination. Lettuce receiving the last irrigation 6–4 days before harvest showed increased weight and diameter, higher total aerobic bacteria and shorter shelf life than plants having the early irrigation termination. The plants receiving middle termination irrigation showed similar weight at harvest, lower total aerobic count and longer shelf life than plants receiving late irrigation termination. The effect of the field's moisture prior to harvest on quality was further evaluated with lettuce harvested before and 1, 2 and 7 days after a rainfall event. After rain, mesophilic bacteria population increased 1 log10 CFU/g in outer leaves and more than 2 log10 CFU/g in head leaves. The microbial population in outer leaves declined more rapidly, possibly due to more rapid drying and higher impact of sun UV light. The results from this study suggest that managing moisture conditions at harvest is important to enhance quality of lettuce. Although the potential decrease in weight produced with an early irrigation termination is a great concern of growers, it was shown in this study that excessively late preharvest irrigation of lettuce is not necessary to obtain maximum weight at harvest.
X. Fan and J.P. Mattheis
Whole carrots (Daucus carota L.) and midrib tissues of iceberg lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) were treated with 42 μmol·m-3 MCP, then exposed to ethylene. Exposure to 42 μmol·m-3 ethylene at 10 °C increased isocoumarin content ≈40-fold in both peel and pulp of nontreated carrots within 4 days, but treatment with MCP for 4 hours at 20 °C before exposure to ethylene prevented isocoumarin accumulation. Ethylene-induced acidity loss and respiration rate increase in carrots were also prevented by MCP treatment. Ethylene treatment (126 μmol·m-3) of lettuce at 6 °C had induced russet spotting >5% to 10% of the midrib tissue by day 3 and 30% to 35% by day 9, while pretreatment with MCP for 4 hours at 6 °C prevented development of russet spotting. The results indicate that ethylene-induced physiological disorders and quality loss in carrots and iceberg lettuce can be prevented by MCP treatment prior to exposure to ethylene. Chemical name used: 1-methylcyclopropene (MCP).
Ryan J. Hayes, German Sandoya, Beiquan Mou, Ivan Simko, and Krishna V. Subbarao
The Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, and the University of California, Davis, announce the release of three F 2:4 breeding populations of iceberg lettuce ( Lactuca sativa L.). The breeding populations
Mark A. Ritenour, Ellen G. Sutter, David M. Williams, and Mikal E. Saltveit
This study was undertaken to determine if endogenous IAA content and axillary bud development correlate with phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) induction and russet spotting (RS) susceptibility among RS susceptible and resistant cultivars of Iceberg lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.). Final levels of ethylene-induced PAL activity and RS development were highly correlated among cultivars, field conditions, and harvest dates. Harvested Iceberg lettuce midribs contained relatively low amounts of free IAA (maximum of 5.2 ng·g-1 fresh weight). There was poor correlation between free IAA content in lettuce leaf midribs and final RS development among all cultivars, growing conditions, and harvest dates. Axillary bud development, as measured by the number of visible buds per head, bud weight, or bud length, were not significantly correlated with final RS development or midrib IAA content. Cultivars with higher initial free IAA content lost much of their IAA after 8 days storage at 5C in air ± ethylene.
Julio G. Loaiza-Velarde, Francisco A. Tomás-Barberá, and Mikal E. Saltveit
Wounding during minimal processing of lettuce (Lactuca sativa, L.) induces alterations in phenolic metabolism that promote browning and the loss of quality. The activity of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL; the first committed enzyme in phenylpropanoid metabolism) and the concentration of phenolic compounds (e.g., chlorogenic acid, dicaffeoyl tartaric acid, and isochlorogenic acid) increase in excised iceberg lettuce midrib segments after wounding. The effect of short heat-shock treatments on browning and phenolic metabolism in excised midrib segments of iceberg lettuce was studied. As the heat-shock temperature increased from 20 to 70 °C, there was a decrease in the subsequent increase in PAL activity and the accumulation of phenolic compounds in excised midrib segments. Treatments of 45 °C for 120 s, 50 °C for 60 s, or 55 °C for 30 s significantly reduced the increase in PAL activity and subsequent browning seen in control tissue after wounding. Exposure to 45 °C for 480 s, 50 °C for 60 s, or 55 °C for 45 s prevented PAL activity from rising above initial levels. Phenolic compounds remained at initial levels for 3 days in excised midribs exposed to 50 °C for 90 s or to 55 °C for 60 s. However, 55 °C damaged the tissue, as indicated by a* and L* Hunter color values. The synthesis of chlorogenic acid, dicaffeoyl tartaric acid, and isochlorogenic acid was greatly reduced by these heat-shock treatments. These treatments also decreased polyphenol oxidase activity and, to a lesser extent, peroxidase activity.