Hybridization by Grafting: A Long-Standing Debate In a recent issue of Nature , Fuentes et al. (2014) reported that entire nuclear genomes could be transferred across the graft junction to generate a species of allopolyploid plant without sexual
Lychnis and Silene species have identical somatic chromosome numbers (2n = 2x = 24) ( Negrutiu et al., 2001 ), which suggests the possibility of hybridization for exploring desirable and exotic hybrids for commercial use. Hybridization has been used to
and other species of Salvia are widely used horticulture crops, the diversity of the genus represents a largely untapped resource for crop improvement, which might be accessed by means of interspecific hybridization. There are a number of known
African and Southeast Asian “spiny” species of Solanum ( Vorontsova et al., 2013 ; Weese and Bohs, 2010 ), which yield hybrids with different degrees of fertility when they are hybridized with eggplant ( Daunay and Hazra, 2012 ; Rotino et al., 2014
Large scale commercial cultivation of blueberries and the breeding of improved cultivars both began after 1900 (33). Interspecific hybridization has been important in the development of commercial cultivars, and many combinations of species have been crossed in the course of taxonomic studies and in cultivar breeding. Nonetheless, the experimental study of blueberry interspecific hybridization is still in its infancy.
Interspecific hybridization is a technique commonly used by plant breeders to transfer genes from one species to another. Interspecific hybrids are usually obtained with greater difficulty than intraspecific hybrids because genetic barriers to hybridization usually increase with an increase in genetic unrelatedness (6, 11, 18, 41). Breeders resort to interspecific hybridization only when the characters are absent or inadequately expressed at the intraspecific level. Stone-fruit breeders have made much use of interspecific hybridization in the improvement of Prunus cultivars and rootstocks (3, 5, 6, 8, 12, 14, 15, 18, 19, 28, 34, 36, 37, 41, 42, 43) particularly in the subgenus Prunophora (plums), because plum species tend to intercross more freely than do members of other subgenera (41, 42). This paper will review the problems that have been encountered in making interspecific Prunus hybrids and the techniques that have been used to overcome them. In addition, techniques are presented that have been employed successfully with other interspecific hybridizations which may have application for Prunus.
successful, naturally occurring interspecific hybridization via pollinator activity ( Wyatt and Broyles, 1994 ). Asclepias is also unusual in that they have two independent ovaries and, if pollinia are inserted perfectly, all subsequent seed will share a
lilies. To obtain desired traits of interest in cultivars, breeders have tried to make interspecific hybridizations. In the past, interspecific hybridizations in water lily have been performed for the hope of creating a blue hardy water lily hybrid, but
(2011 ), nine species of Salvia were crossed to determine hybridization ability. Due to autogamy in many Salvia species, the seed parent was emasculated before anther dehiscence. Pollination was achieved by touching the pollen parent’s anther to the
An interspecific hybridization program involving ancestral species of the Begonia Semperflorens Cultorum Group was initiated to expand the genetic base of this group. Viable seeds were recovered from four reciprocal crosses. F, progenies were sterile and phenotypically intermediate between parental types. Fluorescence microscopy revealed evidence of both sporophytic and gametophytic incompatibility. Post-pollnation responses of flower petals were positively correlated with pollen tube growth in stigmatic, stylar, and ovarian tissue. A digital image analyzer was used to facilitate seed counts and to determine the percentage of ovules that developed into seeds. Seed germination percentages ranged from 0-91 for crosses to 80-99 for selfs.