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Scott A. Brawner and Michele R. Warmund

3.8-m long fruit picker (Ez Connect; Village Blacksmith, Industry, CA). Immediately after harvest, husk hardness (i.e., firmness) and color were recorded. Husk firmness was determined by the dent method and by durometer measurements. The first

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Scott A. Brawner, Michele R. Warmund, and Mark V. Coggeshall

A study was conducted to: 1) evaluate the use of a durometer for determining husk softening and the date of black walnut harvest and 2) elucidate the relationship between husk hardness, kernel color and weight, and date of harvest. Thirty nuts were randomly collected weekly from mature `Sparrow', `Emma K', `Kwik Krop', and `Football' trees from 1 Sept. to 13 Oct. 2004. Husk denting, hardness, and color measurements were recorded immediately after harvest. Husk denting is the method commonly used by growers to determine the optimum time of harvest. Nuts were then hulled within 48 hours and the in-shell fresh weights were recorded. After drying under natural conditions for 5 weeks, kernel color and weights were assessed. On 15 Sept., 99% of `Sparrow' husks dented with a mean durometer value of 54. On 29 Sept., ≥99% of `Emma K' and `Kwik Krop' husks dented with mean durometer values of 63 and 68, respectively. By 13 Oct., 80% of `Football' husks dented with a mean durometer value of 74. From the first harvest date to the time of maximum denting, kernel weight and color (L*, hue values) of `Sparrow' and `Emma K' generally increased. The L* and hue values of `Kwik Krop' were inversely related to increased kernel weight over time. Kernel color of `Football' remained relatively constant as kernel weight increased over time.

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Ed Stover and Eric W. Mercure

et al., 2000 ). The fruit. The pomegranate fruit is berry-like with a leathery rind (or husk) enclosing many seeds surrounded by the juicy arils, which comprise the edible portion of the fruit ( Watson and Dallwitz, 1992 ). The aril juice sack

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Shugang Zhao, Jiamin Niu, Linying Yun, Kai Liu, Shuang Wang, Jing Wen, Hongxia Wang, and ZhiHua Zhang

beneficial for brain health. Similarly, many tissues of the walnut besides the nut, including the husk, shell, shoots, wood, and leaves, are widely used in medicine, industry, and many other applications ( Pei and Lu, 2011 ). The shell is usually ignored and

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Qin Yang, Yan Fu, Yalan Liu, Tingting Zhang, Shu Peng, and Jie Deng

of the differences in the fruit. In pomegranate, the pollen genotype not only significantly affects the fruit shape, length and diameter, fruit color, and fruit peel thickness, but also alters the seed weight, length and diameter, hardness, and

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John M. Capik and Thomas J. Molnar

bottom of the image to show scale. Fig. 2. Example of morphological difference observed in the nut husks (involucres) of the hazelnut ( Corylus ) species and interspecific hybrids evaluated in this study. Species or hybrid included are as follows (in

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Lu Zhang and Xiangyang Sun

inexpensive ( Ahmad et al., 2012 ; Jayasinghe et al., 2009 , 2010c ). CF is a plant-derived and readily available organic waste material that is obtained from the mesocarp (husk) of coconut; CF is one of the hardest plant fibers known ( Aggarwal and Nirmala