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Southern Florida suffered the effects of four hurricanes during Fall 2004: Charley, Frances, Ivan, and Jeanne ( Mitchell and Cantliffe, 2012 ). Losses in agricultural production occurred during a 7-week period, beginning with hurricane Charley on 13

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Hurricanes occur periodically in southern Florida, resulting in severely damaged or destroyed orchards due to high winds, fresh-water flooding, and salt damage accompanying these storms. Commercial fruit production is often markedly reduced following hurricane damage. Orchard establishment and management practices that increase tree rooting depth and reduce tree size decrease tree losses due to high-velocity winds that accompany these storms. Cultural practices, such as post-hurricane pruning, whitewashing, resetting, and irrigation of trees, can rehabilitate a damaged orchard. Planning for a hurricane will increase the ability of orchards to withstand a storm and resume fruit production as soon as possible following a storm.

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Sustainable production system encompassing Macademia, Sugar, Coffee, Fruits and Flowers a hall mark of Hawaiian Agriculture is now threatened by hurricane and rain storms. Concerns for crop losses and set back in agribusiness are beign intensively discussed against the background of future diversifications of operation and investment.

Findings from post 'Iniki' hurricane study of losses through survey of Hawaii grown economic commodities produced on the Island of Kaui are contained in this paper.

Highlights showed that banana and papaya farming systems have the highest recovery potential. The impact on fruit processing industries is also discussed.

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Hurricane Katrina (Aug. 2005) and Hurricane Rita (Sept. 2005) were devastating to the central U.S. Gulf Coast region. Hurricane Katrina caused an estimated $10–11 million in wholesale nursery crop damage in Louisiana, while Hurricane Rita caused an estimated $5 million in damages. Average wholesale nursery crop sales in Louisiana account for about $120 million annually. 317 wholesale growers in Louisiana (49% of the state total) suffered damages due to Hurricane Katrina, while 158 wholesale growers (24% of the state total) suffered damages due to Hurricane Rita. Louisiana's retail plant dealers affected by Hurricane Katrina numbered 367 (28% of the state total). Louisiana's retail plant dealers affected by Hurricane Rita numbered 329 (24% of the state total). Retail plant dealers accounted for $511 million in sales in 2002, the year for which figures are most recently available. In the landscape and horticultural services segment of Louisiana's green industry, 703 (36%) were impacted by Hurricane Katrina and 450 (23%) were impacted by Hurricane Rita. While growers and retailers experienced economic hardships ranging from 1 month to permanent, most landscape contractors and horticultural service providers rebounded quickly and were actively involved in storm cleanup and recovery. Some, however, lost equipment, office structures, storage buildings, and vehicles. It is estimated that at least 20,000 of the 56,600 green industry employees in Louisiana were affected by Hurricanes Katrina and/or Rita to some degree. Louisiana's green industry overall provides about $2.2 billion in economic contributions annually.

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Surviving extremes of climate is a fundamental component of horticultural production and research. The Southern Horticultural Laboratory has weathered many storms including Hurricane Camille and now Hurricane Katrina. The name of the research station has changed twice, both times following massive hurricanes. Before Hurricane Camille in 1969, the station title was the Tung Research Unit. After the devastation of the tung industry by Camille, the research focus changed to blueberries and other small fruit crops with a corresponding name change to Small Fruit Research Unit in 1976. The research objectives expanded to include ornamental research in 2001. Post Hurricane Katrina, the unit was renamed the Thad Cochran Southern Horticultural Laboratory to reflect the station's expanded research mission. This paper chronicles how the station reacted to the devastation of Hurricane Katrina. It also evaluates economic vitality of commodities researched at the station in contrast with storm effects on pecan and the demise of tung production. Katrina produced some temporary interruptions in production but no drastic restructuring of the type experienced with tung production after Camille is anticipated. Hurricanes are inevitable for the Gulf Coast region. Wise planning and implementation of preventative measures to protect horticultural crops and research will determine future success.

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named hurricanes, causing major damage in all parts of the state. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the economic impact of Florida's environmental horticulture industry for 2005 using methods similar to those used in the two previous studies

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On 24 August, 1992, Hurricane Andrew struck South Florida's tropical fruit production area with sustained winds of 230 kph and gusts exceeding 280 kph. Damage included defruiting, defoliation, limb and trunk breakage, windthrowing (uprooting), sunburning and the stripping of bark from the trunks and limbs by flying debris. In general, older and taller trees were more severely damaged than younger and shorter trees. Selective limb removal, topping and other pruning practices that reduced overall tree height and opened up the canopy greatly reduced the occurrence of windthrow and severe breakage. Severe damage occurred on lime, mango, passion fruit, lychee and longan; damage was moderate on atemoya, avocado, banana, mamey sapote, papaya and sugar apple; and light damage occurred on carambola and guava. The full extent of injury cannot yet be determined as additional losses will occur due to the direct trauma of the hurricane, insects and diseases, cold temperatures and drought.

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Southeastern peach and pecan orchards weathered hurricanes in the 1980s and 1990s that left long-term effects on tree health and productivity. Pecan trees were affected the most, due to being blown down from strong winds and wet soils or suffering considerable damage to branches and immature nuts resulting in massive nut drops. Premature nut drop triggered or enhanced alternate bearing problems. Cultivar differences were evident in the ability of trees to withstand wind damage, with open-canopy trees being most resistant, but essentially all trees were damaged when they exceeded ≈17m in height. Hurricanes in older, alternate-bearing orchards sometimes broke enough limbs to induce sufficient vegetative regrowth to reestablish an equilibrium between sink (nuts) and source (foliage), thus enhancing yields in subsequent years. Peach trees which were less than 4.5 m tall and already harvested usually did not blow over unless the soil was very wet. However, peach trees were often twisted about the tree axis from the change in wind directions as the hurricane passed over. Afterwards, many trees leaned more than 30 °, especially trees less than 6 to 7 years of age. Root damage was significant and increased when trees were manually repositioned as additional root breakage occured from which these trees often later died. Trees not repositioned but instead retrained to vertical by pruning lived longer. Ambrosia beetles also attacked wind-stressed trees and caused a long-term decline. Slow moving hurricanes significantly damaged peach trees by waterlogging the soil, which killed roots and helped primary pathogens such as Phytophthora sp. to attack the tree crown. This was followed by secondary pathogens like Oxyporous sp., which attacked the internal woody cylinder. Initial trunk damage appeared localized; however, trees continued to die over a number of years. Experience showed that whole orchard removal on severe waterlogged sites was the best economical response.

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Up to three hurricanes (Charley, Frances, and Jeanne) passed over the same citrus-producing areas of Florida in August and September 2004. In October 2005, hurricane Wilma also passed over South Florida. We began evaluating citrus tree recovery in four commercial groves (red and white grapefruit, and `Murcott' tangerine) following the 2004 hurricanes to determine how quickly commercial groves recover following such catastrophic events. We previously reported that, among other things, even branches formed after the last 2004 hurricane matured sufficiently to flower the following spring, but to a lesser extent than older shoots. Here, we report hurricane effects on tree yield, fruit quality, and shelf life. Fruit loss was dramatic following the 2004 hurricanes (>90%). Fruit loss was also substantial following hurricane Wilma, with `Murcott' yields reduced 18% and grapefruit yields reduced 58%-65%. However, in comparison to 2003 pre-hurricane yields, yields following hurricane Wilma declined only 9% for `Murcott,' and 26%-40% for grapefruit. These yield reductions are less than the fruit lost due to the present year's hurricane. Therefore, the citrus trees studied demonstrated tremendous resilience and, if not for another hurricane the following year, would have likely exceeded pre-hurricane yields only 1 year after the devastating 2004 hurricanes. Effects of the hurricanes on harvested fruit quality and shelf life will also be discussed.

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Hurricane Andrew created over 17 yrs. of wood debris in a few hrs. in Dade County on 8-24-92. The rush to burn debris contributed to respiratory health problems. Through meetings with FEMA, Army Corps of Engineers, Dade County and environmental groups, SCS and SDSWCD pushed the idea of recycling this waste. Mulching and eventual composting of wood debris and using farmland as reuse sites were promoted. A joint pilot project established a team of mobile chippers coordinated by representatives of each agency. FEMA funded the project and chippers began working in groves after trees were trimmed and branches were stacked in tree rows. Over 600 ha. ware chipped and mulched during the 10 wk. contract period. More than 800 ha. are to be done under a new contract. Mulched material from other sites were delivered free to landowners who covered exposed roots of trees and replaced soil blown away by high winds. Over 200,000 m3 of mulch were delivered 5 mos. after the hurricane and 1.2 million m3 more were requested. For final pickup of debris, central grinding sites ware established and mulch was hauled to growers for mulch or compost.

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