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Usha R. Palaniswamy

Vegetarianism dates back to a time before recorded history and, as many anthropologists believe, most early humans ate primarily plant foods, being more gatherers than hunters. Human diets may be adopted for a variety of reasons, including political, esthetic, moral, environmental and economic concerns, religious beliefs, and a desire to consume a more healthy diet. A major factor influencing the vegetarianism movement in the present time is primarily associated with better health. Epidemiologic data support the association between high intake of vegetables and fruit and low risk of chronic diseases and provide evidence to the profound and long-term health benefits of a primarily vegetarian diet. Vegetables and fruit are rich sources of nutrients, vitamins, minerals, and dietary fiber as well as biologically active nonnutrient compounds that have a complementary and often multiple mechanisms of actions, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, hypoglycemic, hypocholesterolemic, and hypolipidemic properties, and mechanisms that stimulate the human immune system. Because of the critical link established between diet and health, consumers have begun to view food as a means of self-care for health promotion and disease prevention. Functional foods are targeted to address specific health concerns, such as high cholesterol or high blood sugar levels, to obtain a desired health benefit. Functional properties identified in a number of plant species have led to a modern day renaissance for the vegetarian movement.

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Bhimanagouda S. Patil, Kevin Crosby, David Byrne, and Kendal Hirschi

resistance. The improvement of food security to improve human health requires a paradigm shift in plant breeding to integrate nutrition ( DellaPenna, 1999 ). This will require coordination of scientists involved in plant breeding, human health, and

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Virginia I. Lohr and Caroline H. Pearson-Mims

Research has shown that people respond physiologically and psychologically to scenes of urban and natural landscapes. Viewing nature has been associated with improvements in health, and there is evidence that people have a preference for certain tree forms. Human responses to different tree forms (spreading, columnar, and rounded) and nonliving urban elements were examined. Blood pressure, skin temperature, and emotional states of participants were measured while viewing computer-enhanced slides of urban and residential settings. Respondents were calmer when viewing trees than when viewing nonliving urban elements, and they expressed strong preferences for some tree scenes

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Irwin L. Goldman

, but also because of their potential health value. If, however, humans have imparted such health value to these plants, why then does the modern pharmacy contain primarily synthetic monomolecular pharmaceuticals? Although marketers have promoted fruits

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James W. Anderson

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Ron Buescher, Luke Howard, and Pat Dexter

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Jack E. Staub, Philipp Simon, and Irwin Goldman