) but this resistance has not yet been incorporated into cultivars. Chemical control of downy mildew is necessary to achieve high yields in the absence of high host plant resistance. The discovery of systemic fungicides was a major advance over
Adam D. Call, Todd C. Wehner, Gerald J. Holmes and Peter S. Ojiambo
Jason Ernest Elvin Dampier, Richard W. Harper, Ashley McElhinney and Eric Biltonen
-resistant ones. This strategy, known as host plant resistance, or HPR, is an important strategy in agricultural and forested settings ( Beck, 1965 ; Herms, 2002 ). With mounting social and regulatory pressures demanding the use of less pesticides in urban and
John A. Juvik
Heliothis zea (Boddle) is one of agriculture's worst insect pests. Reduction in crop productivity and costs for insecticidal control of this cosmopolitan pest cost U.S. agriculture many millions of dollars annually. The sesquiterpenes (+)-E-å-santalen-12-oic and (+)-E- endo- β–bergamoten-12-oic acids isolated from hexane leaf extracts of the wild tomato species, Lycopersicon hirsutum, have been shown to attract and stimulate oviposition by female H. zea. Extracts from other host plants (tobacco, corn, and cotton) also possess attractant/oviposition stimulant activity to female H. zea. Studies are underway to assess the potential use of these and other phytochemicals for the control or monitoring of population levels of H. zea in tomato, corn and cotton fields.
The isolation and structural identification of insect pest oviposition stimulants in horticultural crop species can provide valuable information to plant breeders involved in developing cultivars with improved insect host plant resistance. This information could be used to develop cultivars lacking the chemical cues used by insects for host plant location and recognition. Risks of public exposure to toxic insecticides through consumption of agricultural produce and polluted ground water emphasize the critical need for the development of crop genotypes with improved best plant resistance as a supplementary method of insect pest management in agricultural ecosystems.
D.S. Douches, T.J. Kisha, J.J. Coombs, W. Li, W.L. Pett and E.J. Grafius
The Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say), is the most serious insect pest of potatoes throughout the eastern and north central United States. Host plant resistance to the Colorado potato beetle has been identified in wild Solanum species and Bt-transgenic potato lines. Detached-leaf bioassays (72 h) were conducted on insecticide-resistant, first instar Colorado potato beetles to study the effectiveness of individual and combined host plant resistance traits in potato. Potato lines tested include non-transgenic cultivars (`Russet Burbank', `Lemhi Russet', and `Spunta'), a line with glandular trichomes (NYL235-4), a line with high foliar leptines (USDA8380-1), and transgenic lines expressing either codon-modified Bt-cry3A or Bt-cry5 (Bt-cry1Ia1). Bt-cry3A transgenic lines, foliar leptine line, and foliar leptine lines with Bt-cry5 had reduced feeding compared to non-transgenic cultivars. Glandular trichome lines and glandular trichome lines with Bt-cry5 did not reduce feeding in this no-choice feeding study. Some Bt-cry5 transgenic lines, using either the constitutive promoters CaMV35s or (ocs)3mas (Gelvin super promoter), were moderately effective in reducing larval feeding. Feeding on Bt-cry5 transgenic lines with the tuber-specific patatin promoter was not significantly different than or greater than feeding on the susceptible cultivars. Mortality of first instars was highest when fed on the Bt-cry3A lines (68% to 70%) and intermediate (38%) on the Bt-cry5 `Spunta' line SPG3 where the gus reporter gene was not included in the gene construct. Host plant resistance from foliar leptines is a candidate mechanism to pyramid with either Bt-cry3A or Bt-cry5 expression in potato foliage against Colorado potato beetle. Without multiple sources of host plant resistance, long-term sustainability is questionable for a highly adaptable insect like the Colorado potato beetle.
Russell Nagata*, Gregg Nuessly and Heather McAuslane
Host plant resistance is a key element in a viable integrated pest management plan. Resistance to plant feeding was observed on Valmaine cos lettuce, Lactuca sativa L. to the banded cucumber beetle (BCB), Diabotica balteata (LeConte). In no-choice feeding evaluations, adult BCB contained on three week old Valmaine plants gained less weight, died and fed less than individuals contained on susceptible Tall Guzmaine cos lettuce. Individual female BCB held on Valmaine plants also did not have egg development as in those individual held on Tall Guzmaine. Based on weight gain and feeding damage F1, F2, and F3 segregation data indicates that the resistance factor is recessive in inheritance and controlled by more that one gene.
Cynthia A. Patton, Thomas G. Ranney, James D. Burton and James F. Walgenbach
Feeding intensity of adult Japanese beetle (Popillia japonica Newm.) was compared among 27 taxa of Prunus host plants during 24-hour no-choice feeding trials conducted on individual leaves. Fecal dry mass per beetle, a measure of feeding intensity, varied from 0 mg·d-1 for Prunus padus L. to 20.4 mg·d-1 for P. sargentii Rehd. and P. tomentosa Thunb. Prunus padus, P. laurocerasus L., P. mahaleb L., P. serotina Ehrh., P. virginiana L., P. americana Marsh., P. ×yedoensis Matsum., and P. besseyi Bailey were resistant based on feeding intensities of <4.3 mg·d-1 (levels not significantly different from zero). Feeding intensity decreased exponentially as endogenous foliar cyanide potential increased. Evaluation of the cyanogenic glucoside prunasin in artificial diets showed a similar relationship with feeding being reduced by 50% (ED50) at 4.9 mmol·kg-1 in the diet. Prunus mahaleb was highly resistant to Japanese beetles despite having low cyanide potential. Two coumarin compounds known to exist in P. mahaleb, herniarin and coumarin, were tested in artificial diets and were effective feeding deterrents with ED50 values of 5.9 and 2.5 mmol·kg-1 in the diet, respectively. This research demonstrated a wide range of host plant resistance to feeding by adult Japanese beetles and further indicates that prunasin, herniarin, and coumarin are important factors in host plant resistance to this pest.
David G. Riley, Shimat V. Joseph, W. Terry Kelley, Steve Olson and John Scott
management of thrips vectors has been effective using reflective plastic mulch ( Greenough et al., 1990 ; Reitz et al., 2003 ), early-season insecticide treatments ( Brown and Brown, 1992 ; Riley and Pappu, 2000 ), host–plant resistance ( Krishna et al
Joseph J. Coombs, David S. Douches, Susannah G. Cooper, Edward J. Grafius, Walter L. Pett and Dale D. Moyer
Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say) is the leading insect pest of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) in northern latitudes. Host plant resistance is an important tool in an integrated pest management program for controlling insect pests. Field studies were conducted to compare natural host plant resistance mechanisms (glandular trichomes and Solanum chacoense Bitter-derived resistance), engineered [Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Berliner Bt-cry3A], and combined (glandular trichomes + Bt-cry3A and S. chacoense-derived resistance + Bt-cry3A transgenic potato lines) sources of resistance for control of colorado potato beetle. Six different potato clones representing five different host plant resistance mechanisms were evaluated for 2 years in a field situation under natural colorado potato beetle pressure in Michigan and New York, and in a no-choice field cage study in Michigan. In the field studies, the S. chacoense-derived resistance line, Bt-cry3A transgenic, and combined resistance lines were effective in controlling defoliation by colorado potato beetle adults and larvae. Effectively no feeding was observed in the Bt-cry3A transgenic lines. The glandular trichome line suffered less defoliation than the susceptible control, but had greater defoliation than the Bt-cry3A transgenic lines and the S. chacoense-derived resistance line. In the no-choice cage study, the Bt-cry3A transgenic lines and the combined resistance lines were effective in controlling feeding by colorado potato beetle adults and larvae with no defoliation observed. The S. chacoense-derived resistance line and the glandular trichome line suffered less defoliation than the susceptible control. Based on the results of the field trials and no-choice field cage studies, these host plant resistance mechanisms could be used to develop potato varieties for use in a resistance management program for control of colorado potato beetle.
Johanna Del Castillo Múnera and Mary K. Hausbeck
not recovered from any of the untreated uninoculated controls. Discussion Plant protectants and host resistance were evaluated as a means to manage highly virulent Pythium spp. commonly associated with floriculture crops in Michigan ( Del Castillo
Beiquan Mou and Yong-Biao Liu
Leafminer (Liriomyza spp.) is a major insect pest of many important agricultural crops including lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.). The goals of this study were to evaluate lettuce genotypes for resistance to leafminers and to estimate the heritabilities of leafminer-resistant traits in the field, to examine the association among different resistant traits, and to study the mechanism of leafminer resistance in lettuce. Seventy-eight lettuce accessions and 232 F2 plants of crosses were evaluated for leafminer stings and the production of pupae and flies in the field in 2001 and 2002, and resistant genotypes were subjected to no-choice test. Wild species (Lactuca serriola L., L. saligna L., and L. virosa L.) had significantly fewer stings than cultivated lettuces. Among cultivated lettuces, sting densities were lowest on leaf lettuce and highest on romaine types. The sting results from the field were highly correlated with the results from insect cages (r = 0.770 and 0.756 for 2001 and 2002 tests, respectively), suggesting that a cage test can be used to screen for resistance in the field. Broad-sense heritability estimates for stings per unit leaf area in the field were 81.6% and 67.4% for 2001 and 2002 tests, respectively. The number of pupae produced per plant or per leaf was moderately correlated with sting density but was not correlated with leaf weight. Results suggest that both antixenosis and antibiosis exist in lettuce germplasm and resistant genotypes from choice tests remain resistant under no-choice conditions. These findings suggest that genetic improvement of cultivated lettuce for leafminer resistance is feasible.