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Marvin P. Pritts and Travis Park

higher-order thinking skills ( Anderson and Krathwohl, 2001 ; Bloom et al., 1956 ). The original taxonomy of learning objectives includes knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis, and evaluation ( Bloom et al., 1956 ). Fink (2003

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Joshua K. Craver and Kimberly A. Williams

bold. Table 3. Average percent correct HORT 570 Greenhouse Operations Management student responses to seven higher-order learning (HOL) multiple choice questions concerning hydroponic production and general plant nutrition over four time periods: Time 1

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Ann Marie VanDerZanden

technical knowledge with practical application increases ( Beidler et al., 2006 ; Berle, 2007 ). Providing opportunities for students to develop these skills is an essential part of their undergraduate education. One way to help students develop higher-order

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Marci Spaw*, Kimberly A. Williams, and Laura A. Brannon

This study compared student learning outcomes of two teaching methodologies: a summary lecture and an asynchronous web-based method that included a case study (www.hightunnels.org/planningcasestudy.htm) followed by an all-class discussion. Twenty-one students taking an upper-level undergraduate course in greenhouse management were randomly split into two groups. Each group experienced both methodologies with presentations designed to provide complimentary information about site planning for protected environment structures; however, the order in which the groups received the methods was reversed. After each presentation, the participants were given an identical quiz (Time 1 and Time 2) comprised of questions that assessed knowledge gained, higher-order learning, and their perception of how confident they would be in solving actual site planning scenarios. Though quiz scores were not different between the two groups after Time 1 or 2, overall quiz scores improved after Time 2 for both groups combined (P = 0.03). When questions were categorized as lower-order vs. higher-order learning, a greater increase in scores was observed in higher-order learning (P = 0.12 vs. P = 0.04, respectively). Although students' perceived confidence was not influenced by which method was received first (P = 0.23), their confidence increased after Time 2 compared to Time 1 (P = 0.07). Rather than one teaching method being superior to the other, this study suggests that it is beneficial to use both. Interestingly, while students overwhelmingly preferred to receive the summary lecture before the web-based method, there was no significant difference in test scores between the two orders, suggesting that neither order offered any advantage.

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Catherine Lavis

This study explored students' cognitive complexity as defined by William Perry (1970) as influenced by teaching methods promoting active involvement at a higher level of interchange than traditional lecture. Two components of this research are: 1) an understanding of Perry's theory to serve as a guide for curricula development incorporating activities to influence intellectual growth by considering the student's current Perry positions in order to encourage upward movement according to Perry's Scheme; and 2) to investigate the reliability of using the student's Learning Environment Preference Inventory (LEP) (Moore, 1987) as a tool to understand the student's cognitive growth. The qualitative portion of this research examined cognitive complexity using the LEP instrument. LEP would give instructors an approximate idea of how to construct their courses to deliver information encouraging higher-order thinking. It is a mistake to assume students in upper division courses are all operating in upper Perry positions. It is difficult to make significant gains in intellectual development during one semester, but it is particularly challenging if instructors are unaware of where students are initially in respect to cognitive complexity. The utilization of a reliable instrument may also help explain some perplexing incidents that occur in classrooms. Instructors can be comforted knowing that what frequently transpires in a class might be motivated more by where students are in their cognitive development than by what is said or done by the instructor.

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David Wees

The Farm Management and Technology Program (FMT) is a 3-year post-secondary vocational agriculture program. FMT students may choose to specialize in horticulture. Since January 1995, all horticulture students have been involved in a hands-on, practical educational experience called “H.O.R.T.” (Horticultural Opportunities for Real Training). The students operate a small horticultural “business.” They must plant, maintain, harvest, and sell several horticultural crops, including greenhouse and field-grown vegetables, apples, berries, and potted flowers. H.O.R.T. lasts two semesters: January through April and September through December. Students may choose to do H.O.R.T. for 2 years to broaden and deepen their horticultural learning. Through active participation in H.O.R.T., students will achieve the technical competencies required by the FMT program and specified by Quebec's ministries of education and agriculture. Each year of H.O.R.T. counts for 5-2/3 credits out of a program total of 90-1/3 credits. The goals of H.O.R.T. are not so much the acquisition of “book knowledge” (lower part of the cognitive domain) as the development of technical skills, planning and decisionmaking abilities, business sense, and proper communication (higher-order cognitive skills as well as psycho-motor and affective skills).

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Sandra B. Wilson, Robert L. Geneve, and Fred T. Davies

Distance education enrollments have increased for the 14th straight year. Currently, 31.6% of all higher education students are taking at least one distance education course ( Seaman et al., 2018 ). With 42% of faculty reportedly teaching a fully

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Kristin R. Campbell, Sandra B. Wilson, P. Christopher Wilson, and Zhenli He

A need for off-campus learning was realized as far back as the 1950s, when increased student enrollment was beginning to limit on-campus space ( Curtis, 1957 ). Today, most campus universities are moving toward distance education as a method for

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Catherine C. Lavis and Laura A. Brannon

, 1995 ), horticultural students who were taught using experiential learning activities scored higher on knowledge exams when compared with students taught using lectures exclusively. Real-life learning activities provide students the opportunity to

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Gerardo H. Nunez

enhances lower- and higher-order learning ( Craver and Williams, 2014 ) and promotes skill development ( Mahoney et al., 2015 ) in advanced horticulture courses. Experiential learning also aids in recruiting students into subsequent horticulture courses