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Stefano Musacchi, Federico Gagliardi and Sara Serra

; Weber, 2001 ). The dwarfing rootstock series Gisela ® , developed at the Liebig University of Giessen in Germany, induce early bearing of sweet cherry. Gisela ® 5 and Gisela ® 6, in particular, show promise for use in high-density cherry orchards

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Toshio Shibuya, Akihito Sugimoto, Yoshiaki Kitaya and Makoto Kiyota

In a community with high plant density, as seen in transplant production, the gas exchanges between plant and atmosphere are conducted through a unique boundary layer developed above the canopy ( Kim et al., 1996b ). The boundary layer varies with

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Angela Knerl, Brendon Anthony, Sara Serra and Stefano Musacchi

., 1995 ), but they must be adjusted and optimized because the trees are in rows and can be much smaller than in forests. The modern choice for new orchards is high-density planting (HDP) at 2000–4000 trees/ha with planting densities as high as 0.75 m × 3

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Dinesh Phuyal, Thiago Assis Rodrigues Nogueira, Arun D. Jani, Davie M. Kadyampakeni, Kelly T. Morgan and Rhuanito Soranz Ferrarezi

Growers have been using advanced horticultural practices and modifying orchard architecture design to cope with the Huanglongbing (HLB) epidemic in Florida. High-density planting is one modification that can potentially anticipate early economic

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Benjamin D. Toft, Mobashwer M. Alam, John D. Wilkie and Bruce L. Topp

Orchard planting systems for apple have been developed according to high standards in recent years. During the past 60–70 years, planting density has increased from 100 trees/ha to sometimes 10,000/trees ha in an attempt to increase orchard

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Jaume Lordan, Anna Wallis, Poliana Francescatto and Terence L. Robinson

was −$20,000/ha for 500 trees/ha, whereas it was −$50,000/ha when planting 3230 trees/ha. At year 5, cumulative NPV of ‘Honeycrisp’ almost reached a positive value for high-density plantings (>2500 trees/ha), and the advantage of high-density plantings

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Gerry Henry Neilsen, Denise Neilsen and Linda Herbert

resulted in most efficient use of N for ‘Golden Delicious’ apples grown outdoors in pots ( Bar-Yosef et al., 1988 ). Estimates of annual N removal in fruit and senescent leaves for 3- to 6-year-old, high-density ‘Elstar’ or ‘Gala’ on M.9 rootstock ranged

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Gerald M. Henry, Jared A. Hoyle, Leslie L. Beck, Tyler Cooper, Thayne Montague and Cynthia McKenney

trees spaced widely apart (173 trees/ha) to reduce intraspecific competition for stored soil water reserves ( Rapoport et al., 2004 ; Vossen, 2007 ). In the early 1980s, irrigated orchards were planted in high densities (617 trees/ha) in attempts to

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Patricia Sweeney, Karl Danneberger, Daijun Wang and Michael McBride

Limited information is available on the performance under temperate conditions in the United States of recently released cultivars of creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera L.) with high shoot density for use on golf course putting greens. Fifteen cultivars were established in Aug. 1996 on a greens mix with high sand content to compare their seasonal weights and total nonstructural carbohydrate (TNC) contents. The cultivars were maintained at 3.1 mm height of cut. Shoot density counts were taken during Apr., July, and Oct. 1998. Root weights and nonstructural carbohydrate levels were assessed monthly from June 1997 through Nov. 1998. A cultivar group contrast between the high shoot density cultivars (`Penn A1', `Penn A2', `Penn A4', `Penn G1', `Penn G2', and `Penn G6') and the standard cultivars (`Penncross', `Crenshaw', `Southshore', `DF-1', `Procup', `Lopez', `SR1020', and `Providence') revealed that the former averaged 342.9 and 216.1 more shoots/dm2 on two of the three sampling dates. Root dry weights did not vary significantly (P ≤ 0.05) among the cultivars. Performing a contrast between new high shoot density cultivars and standard cultivars revealed greater root dry weight in the former during Mar. and May 1998. Differences (P ≤ 0.05) in TNC were observed on two of the 18 sampling dates, but no trends were evident.

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Mani Skaria and Zhang Tao

High-density or ultra-high-density orchards have had positive economic return up to 12 years after planting. However, an initial higher investment on more number of trees needed is a limiting factor for high-density planting. Our preliminary studies have shown that a microbudding technique that we had developed would produce less-expensive, budded citrus trees. In June 1997, several hundred microbudded citrus trees were planted in a field, under drip irrigation. The planting continued monthly until Dec. 1997. The cultivars planted were: `Marrs' orange, `Rio Red' grapefruit, `Meyer' and `Ponderosa' lemon, and satsuma mandarin. All plants were microbudded on sour orange rootstock grown in 5′′ long “conetainers.” Our objectives were to study the growth performance of small, microbudded trees planted in the field. The plants grew normally and even out-performed the conventionally budded trees in a field nursery next to the test plot. In Dec. 1999, tree height reached 60 inches. Five percent of the trees produced fruit and they were normal in shape, color, and quality.