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Linsey A. Newton and Erik S. Runkle

flowers develop. The objective of this study was to determine how short or moderate periods of high temperatures each day influence flowering of mature Phalaenopsis orchids. By providing a high day temperature during the vegetative stage, commercial

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Qin Yang, Er Liu, Yan Fu, Fuqiang Yuan, Tingting Zhang, and Shu Peng

( Zhang et al., 2015 ). However, extreme high-temperature events are becoming more frequent in south China as a result of increasing temperature and climatic variability, particularly during the flowering phenophase, thereby influencing cultivation ( Yang

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Xi Shan, Heng Zhou, Ting Sang, Sheng Shu, Jin Sun, and Shirong Guo

High temperature is one of the major abiotic factors limiting global agricultural productivity. High temperature directly affects plant physiological and biochemical processes and indirectly changes the growth patterns of plants, reducing plant

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Mark E. Uchanski, Dawn M. VanLeeuwen, Steven J. Guldan, Constance L. Falk, Manoj Shukla, and Juliette Enfield

and characterized by large annual and diurnal temperature ranges, low humidity, and low precipitation. Therefore, high tunnels could be used as a way of modifying the crop production environment in New Mexico, but detailed temperature information is

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Warley M. Nascimento, Jairo V. Vieira, Giovani O. Silva, Kathleen R. Reitsma, and Daniel J. Cantliffe

Carrot crops are established by direct seeding, and poor stands may occur when sowing is done during extremely low or high temperatures. Many publications relate the negative effects of low temperature on carrot stand establishment ( Cantliffe and

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Jing Tian, Li-Ping Wang, Yan-Juan Yang, Jin Sun, and Shi-Rong Guo

resulting from high-temperature stress ( Liu and Huang, 2000 ). Consequently, the evolution of all aerobic organisms has been dependent on the development of efficient ROS-scavenging mechanisms ( Mittler et al., 2004 ). Traditionally, reactive oxygen

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Britney Hunter, Dan Drost, Brent Black, and Ruby Ward

watering, which is important for preventing disorders such as fruit cracking, blossom end rot, and many foliar diseases. High tunnels also provide more optimal temperatures for growth and improve quality by preventing disorders associated with poor

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Yu Sung, Daniel J. Cantliffe, Russell T. Nagata, and Warley M. Nascimento

used model systems for studying germination. In an extensive study, we have established that the ability of lettuce seeds to germinate at high temperature depended equally on heritable and environmental factors ( Kozarewa et al., 2006 ; Nascimento et

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Ockert Greyvenstein, Terri Starman, Brent Pemberton, Genhua Niu, and David Byrne

). High temperature stress is a major limiting factor to growing agronomic and horticultural crops worldwide ( Wahid et al., 2007 ). High temperature stress, the rise in temperature beyond a threshold level for a period of time sufficient to cause

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Mark W. Farnham and Thomas Bjorkman

breeding a vegetable for adaptation to high temperatures. In particular, we focus on how these questions were addressed as this breeding effort was initiated and as it has developed over time. WHAT IS THE EFFECT OF THE ABIOTIC STRESS ON THE CROP TO BE