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Shengrui Yao, Steve Guldan, Robert Flynn, and Carlos Ochoa

exhibit leaf chlorosis in high-pH soils ( Luby et al., 2003 ; Renquist and Hughes, 1985 ). Research on strawberries in high-pH soil conditions is limited ( Renquist and Hughes, 1985 ; Rowley et al., 2010 ; Zaiter et al., 1993 ) and some of the older

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G. Steven Sibbett

Pecan [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh. K. Koch)] soils in the arid western United States are characteristically high in pH, calcareous, and often saline or sodic. Economic production, when trees are grown in such soils, requires that growers pay particular attention to managing soil chemistry to avoid nutrient deficiencies, toxicities, or water deficits due to soil structural deterioration. Soil-applied acidulents, calcium-containing compounds, and water management are used by growers to manage high pH problems, sodic soil conditions, and salinity.

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H.Z. Zaiter, D.P. Coyne, R.B. Clark, D.T. Lindgren, P.T. Nordquist, W.W. Stroup, and L.A. Pavlish

Iron deficiency chlorosis (FeDC) causes extensive reduction in yields of edible dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) grown on high-pH and calcareous soils. Fifteen bean cultivars/lines differing in response to FeDC were grown 2 years (1988 and 1989) on a high-pH (8.0), calcareous (2.3% calcium carbonate equivalent in surface 20 cm), and low-Fe (2.2 mg Fe/kg) Typic Haplustolls silt loam in the field (central Nebraska) to determine the effects of FeDC on seed yield of cultivars/lines sprayed with Fe. A significant interaction (P < 0.05) between cultivars/lines × Fe spray treatment was noted for visual FeDC ratings in 1988 only, and no significant interactions were noted for seed yield either year. Sprayed cultivars/lines generally produced higher yields than unsprayed ones. Overall increases were 47% in 1988 and 41% in 1989. Even though only slight FeDC was noted on some cultivars/lines receiving no Fe spray, seed yields were significantly increased when sprayed with Fe. Some cultivars/lines with moderate or moderately severe FeDC ratings did not show a significant increase in yield when sprayed with Fe, while other cultivars/lines did. Seed yield reductions for the cultivars/ lines per unit of FeDC rating (1 = green to 5 = severe chlorosis) were 915 kg·ha-1 for unsprayed and 1518 kg·ha-1 for sprayed plants in 1988 and 344 kg·ha-1 for unsprayed and 608 kg·ha-1 for sprayed plants in 1989.

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W.B. Evans

The influences of preplant, broadcast P and K fertilizer on long-day yellow onion yield, quality, and storage characteristics were evaluated in 1995 and 1996 on a low-pH muck soil in north-central Ohio. Recommendations based on preseason soil tests indicated the crops would benefit from supplemental K, but not P, in 1995 and also in 1996. In both seasons, broadcast P rates were 0, 67, and 138 kg·ha–1 P2O5; K rates were 0, 168 and 336 kg·ha of K2O. The 3 × 3 factorial of P and K treatments was replicated four times. Phosphorus rate did not significantly influence yield or quality in either 1995 or 1996. Total yield, percent marketable yield, and the concentration of K in the bulbs increased linearly with K in 1995, even though the highest K application rate exceeded the rate recommended by soil testing by more than 100 kg·ha–1. Mean bulb size did not differ significantly among K rates. Potassium rate did not affect yield or quality in 1996, a drier year than 1995. After 5 months of commercial storage, onions from all nine treatments harvested in 1995 had similar amounts of rotten or sprouted bulbs, and weight loss. These results support the idea that P applications can be reduced or eliminated on high-P muck soils without reducing yield or quality. Onion response to applied K requires additional study before firm recommendations can be made.

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Kevin R. Kosola* and Rebecca L. Darnell

Cultivated Vaccinium species (e.g. highbush blueberry, Vaccinium corymbosum, or cranberry, V. macrocarpon) commonly require acidic soil (pH 4.5 to 5.5) for optimum growth. Under these conditions, ammonium (NH4 +) is the dominant form of inorganic N. In contrast, V. arboreum, the sparkleberry can tolerate higher-pH mineral soils, where nitrate (NO3 -) is typically the predominant inorganic N form. This tolerance may be related to increased ability to acquire and utilize NO3—N. Measurements of 15NO3 - and 15NH4 + influx kinetics in excised roots of V. arboreum, V. corymbosum, and V. macrocarpon did not support this hypothesis. NO3 - influx kinetics measured from 10 micromolar to 200 micromolar NO3 - were similar among all three species. NO3 - influx was consistently lower than NH4 + influx at all concentrations for all three species.

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Sharon J.B. Knewtson, M.B. Kirkham, Rhonda R. Janke, Leigh W. Murray, and Edward E. Carey

and management of the experimental plots, we were able to investigate soil quality under high tunnels compared with adjacent fields under both conventional and organic management. Measures of soil quality were: pH, salinity, total soil C, and POM C

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Lushan Ghimire, Davie Kadyampakeni, and Tripti Vashisth

and observations have shown that feeder root loss in HLB-affected trees is positively correlated with soil pH and irrigation water pH ( Morgan and Graham, 2019 ). These trials demonstrated that HLB-affected trees grown either in high-pH soil or when

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Bryan J. Peterson and William R. Graves

moist areas that have high limestone content, and Cooperrider (1962) found occurrence of the species in eastern Iowa to be limited to sites over limestone bedrock. Clark (1971) asserted that D. palustris occurs over circumneutral or basic soils in

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Khalid F. Almutairi, Rui M.A. Machado, David R. Bryla, and Bernadine C. Strik

limited after planting because blueberry has a fine, shallow root system (<0.3-m deep) that is easily damaged by cultivation ( Bryla and Strik, 2007 ). Therefore, when soil pH is too high after planting, growers must either apply S o on the soil surface

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Mohammed B. Tahboub, William C. Lindemann, and Leigh Murray

lowered soil pH, increased soil carbon, and organic matter contents and enhanced water infiltration in soil planted with almond trees in the San Joaquin Valley, CA ( Holtz et al., 2004 ). However, the application rate was unrealistically high (≈410,000 kg