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stressors such as adverse environments, air pollution, or pests ( Haugen et al., 2000 ). Haugen et al. (2000) and WDATCP (2003) proposed that insect feeding, environmental factors, or herbicide drift could cause leaf tatters. Our preliminary research

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Auxin herbicides are known to create high-risk drift scenarios for grape growers. Simulated 2,4-D drift as low as 1/100× of a field use rate has caused herbicide symptoms on grapes, including season-long symptomology and symptoms in the following

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Weed management in citrus orchards largely involves the application of nonselective herbicides (e.g., glyphosate and paraquat) for postemergence control ( Singh et al., 2005 ). The off-target movement of these herbicides (drift) can affect citrus

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This study evaluated the response of rose to different herbicides applied as simulated drift. Chlorsulfuron {2-chloro-N-[[(4-methoxy-6-methyl-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl)amino]carbonyl]benzenesulfonamide}, thifensulfuron {3[[[[(4-methoxy-6-methyl-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl)amino]carbonyl]amino]sulfonyl]-2-thiophenecarboxylic acid}, bromoxynil(3,5-dibromo-4-hydroxybenzonitrile), 2,4-D[(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)acetic acid], glyphosate [N-(phosphonomethyl) glycine], and a combination of 2,4-D and glyphosate were applied over the top of established rose plants at 1/3, 1/10,1/33, and 1/100 of the maximum labeled rate for grains. All herbicides injured rose. The greatest injury was from chlorsulfuron and 2,4-D, and the least injury was from bromoxynil and glyphosate. Plants recovered from the injury caused by all treatments except for the highest rates of chlorsulfuron and 2,4-D, which continued to show significant injury at the end of the growing season. Although all herbicides had characteristic symptoms, some of these were very similar to those caused by other stresses. Therefore, because of the potential ambiguity of visual symptoms, any allegation about herbicide drift should be based on a report of all symptoms and should be supported by residue analysis.

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In 2004 and 2005, potted white oak seedlings 0.6 m in height were treated with six herbicide treatments at three concentrations, 1/4, 1/10, and 1/100× of the standard field use rate. These herbicides and their standard field use rate of active ingredient (a.i.) included 2,4-D at 1.5 kg/ha, 2,4-D + glyphosate at 0.8 kg/ha + 1 kg/ha, acetochlor + atrazine at 3.5 kg/ha, dicamba at 0.7 kg/ha, glyphosate at 1.1 kg/ha and metolachlor at 2.0 kg/ha. The seedlings were treated at three growth stages: swollen buds, leaves unfolding, and expanded leaves. A compressed air spraying chamber delivering 187 L/ha was used to apply the herbicides. After treatment, the containers were placed in an open field plot in a completely randomized design. Oak seedlings were most susceptible to herbicide injury at all concentrations, at the leaves unfolding stage. Symptoms on seedlings treated with 2,4-D and dicamba at the leaves unfolding stage included leaf cupping and rolling, leaf curling, leaf rolling downward from leaf margin, and unusual elongation at leaf tip. Glyphosate + 2,4-D applications resulted in leaf cupping, yellowing, leaf rolling downward from leaf margin and abnormal leaf tips. Glyphosate symptoms ranged from leaf yellowing and browning, to slight browning of interveinal leaf tissues. Acetochlor + atrazine, or metolachlor alone caused the abnormality referred to as “leaf tatters” where in severe cases, only the main veins are present with limited amounts of interveinal tissues. Detailed description of the injury symptoms, supplemented with photographs are posted on a web site: http://www.nres.uiuc.edu/research/herbicide_research/index.htm

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Abstract

Drift studies with tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) showed that 2-chloro-2’, 6’-diethyl-N-(methoxymethyl) acetanilide (alachlor) in combination with either 2-chloro-4-(ethylamino)-6-(isopropylamino)-s-triazine (atrazine), 2-[ [4-chloro-6-(ethylamino-s-triazin-2-yl] amino]-2-methylpropionitrile (cyanazine) or 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-l-methoxy-lmethylurea (linuron) generally produced a synergistic response as regards leaf symptoms and yield reduction. Sub-lethal doses of N-(phosphonomethyl) glycine (glyphosate) reduced tomato yields significantly when applied in June or July as contrasted to no yield reductions when applied in August.

Open Access

In some years, the emerging leaves of white oak and, to a lesser extent, of red oak in the Midwest have developed abnormally. This abnormality is referred to as leaf tatters. Reports to state foresters and Extension specialists associated tatters with herbicide applications. In 2005, white and red oak seedlings were treated in a spray chamber delivering 187 L/ha, with seven herbicides at three concentrations, 1/4×, 1/10×, and 1/100× of the standard field use rate. These herbicides and their standard field use rate of the active ingredients included atrazine at 2.3 kg/ha and chloroacetanilide herbicides: acetochlor at 2.0 kg/ha, metolachlor at 2.1 kg/ha, and dimethenamid at 0.8 kg/ha alone or mixed with atrazine at 2.3 kg/ha, at the leaves unfolding stage. After treatment, oaks were placed outdoors in a randomized complete-block design. Leaf symptoms in our study were similar to those seen in the landscape. In chloroacetanilide-treated white and red oak seedlings, browning of interveinal leaf tissues was noticed 5–6 days after treatment. The dried leaf tissues then dropped off, leaving only the main vein with little interveinal leaf area. In few seedlings treated with atrazine, the leaf tissues turned yellow to brown, while in few others, interveinal tissue damage was restricted, leaving small holes in the leaf. When chloroacetanilide herbicides were applied with atrazine, the dominant symptoms were those of leaf tatters. A few seedlings treated with dimethenamid and atrazine had predominately atrazine symptoms. Although new growth later in the season was not injured, the leaves with tatters remained on the plant until the end of the growing season. The study will be repeated in 2006.

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herbicide-specific, there is a clear reduction in drift potential with increasing droplet size ( Butts et al., 2018 ; Hewitt, 1997 ; Johnson et al., 2006 ). Economic and environmental concerns prioritize the reduction of spray drift and application volume

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( Sabatier et al., 2003 ). In recent years, complaints of damage from rice herbicides allegedly drifting into young walnut orchards have been reported in the Sacramento Valley (J.W. Beauchamp, personal communication). Symptoms observed are consistent with

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certain environmental conditions. Off-target movement can potentially occur with any herbicide, resulting in negative impacts on nontarget vegetation from wind-dispersed particles (drift) and/or as vapors evaporating from another application surface

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