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Itani Tshivhandekano, Fhatuwani Nixwell Mudau and Thilivhali Emmanuel Tshikalange

Bush tea is a South African herbal tea with the potential for commercialization. The commercialization of bush tea is supported by a report of the toxicologic assessment of bush tea conducted by Chellan et al. (2008) . They have reported widespread

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Fhatuwani N. Mudau, Puffy Soundy and Elsa S. du Toit

Herbal teas have high concentrations of total polyphenols ( Owour et al., 2000 ; Venkatesan et al., 2004 ). Polyphenols are known to posses a wide range of beneficial biochemical and physiological properties ( Hirasawa et al., 2002 ). The major

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Maedza V. Khathutshelo, Nkomo Mpumelelo, Ngezimana Wonder and Mudau N. Fhatuwani

), pruning, and drying methods are cultural practices which influence the quality of bush tea. Herbal tea quality is measured by metabolites such as tea polyphenols. Polyphenol-rich diets have been linked with prevention of several chronic and degenerative

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Shao-chang Qin, Juan-ling Li, Abdul Kareem and Yong Wang

China is one of the major tea-producing nations in the world, and partridge tea is one of the famous herbal teas of Hainan Island due to its many health benefits. It has been reported that partridge tea has antiatherosclerotic effects ( Liu et al

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Maedza K. Vuwani, Mpumelelo Nkomo, Wonder Ngezimana, Nokwanda P. Makunga and Fhatuwani N. Mudau

, antioxidant capability, antioxidant enzymes and lipoxygenase inhibitory activity of Orthosiphon stamineus Benth Molecules 18 7957 7976 Joubert, E. Gelderblom, W.C.A. Louw, A. de Beer, D. 2008 South African herbal teas: Aspalathus linearis, Cyclopia spp

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Nixwell F. Mudau, Puffy Soundy and Elsa S. du Toit

Bush tea (Athrixia phylicoides) belongs to the Asteraceae family. It is a popular beverage used as an herbal tea and as medicine for cleansing or purifying the blood, treating boils, headaches, infested wounds, and cuts, and the solutions may also be used as a foam bath. In some parts of South Africa, people drink bush tea for aphrodisiac reasons. Bush tea was grown under varying N, P, and K levels in all four seasons to determine the seasonal nutrient requirements for improved plant growth. Three parallel trials for N, P, or K one at each season were laid out in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with six treatments replicated eight times. Treatments consisted of 0, 100, 200, 300, 400, or 500 kg·ha–1 N, P, or K. Parameters recorded were plant height, number of branches and leaves, fresh and dry stem mass, fresh and dry root mass, stem girth, fresh and dry shoot mass, leaf area and percentage leaf and root tissue N, P, and K. Results of this study demonstrated that, in all trials regardless of season, N, P, or K nutrition increased bush tea fresh and dry shoot mass, plant height, number of leaves, number of branches and leaf area. Regardless of season, the optimum level of N, P and K fertilization for bush tea on growth parameters was 300 kg·ha-1 N or P and 200 kg·ha-1 for K. No significant differences in number of flowers and buds (fall and winter), stem girth, fresh and dry root mass as well as fresh and dry stem mass were obtained.

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Nixwell Mudau, Puffy Soundy and Elsa du Toit

Bush tea (Athrixia phylicoides) belongs to the Asteraceae family. It is a popular beverage, commonly used as an herbal tea and for medicinal purposes. In some parts of South Africa, people consume or drink it as an aphrodisiac. Bush tea was grown under varying nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) levels in the four seasons to determine the seasonal nutrient requirements for improved quality. Treatment consisted of 0, 100, 200, 300, 400, or 500 kg·ha–1 N, P, or K in a randomized complete-block design under 50% shade nets. Three N, P, and K parallel trials were conducted per season (autumn, winter, spring, and summer). Total polyphenols were extracted using Folin-Ciaocalteau reagents and analyzed in a spectrophotometer. Results for the N trial suggested that total polyphenols increased quadratically in response to N nutrition during summer, winter, and spring, but not in autumn. The optimum N level was 300 kg·ha–1. The highest total polyphenol was 51.1 mg·g–1 in winter. For the P trial, total polyphenols also increased quadratically in response to P nutrition regardless of season. Again winter had the highest total polyphenols (46.8 mg·g–1). The optimum P level was 300 kg·ha–1. In the K trial, regardless of season, total polyphenols plateaued at 200 kg·ha–1 and the highest polyphenols were in winter (43.3 mg·g–1). Therefore, for improved total polyphenol content, 300 kg·ha–1 N and P and 200 kg·ha–1 K are recommended regardless of season.

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James M. Affolter and Marta Lagrotteria

The province of Cordoba in central Argentina is naturally rich in aromatic and medicinal herbs that are in high demand as ingredients in teas and herbal medicines. Most of the herbs sold are harvested from natural populations, and this activity is a primary source of income for families in the Sierra de Cordoba region. As a result of over-collection and other poor harvesting practices, many native plant populations have been reduced in size or extirpated. The economic consequence of the gradual decline of this resource has been a loss of real income in rural areas coupled with a pattern of emigration from small towns to larger cities. PRODEMA is a collaborative effort by universities in Argentina and the United States, with the sponsorship of the Cordoba government, to domesticate and to market the most commercially important species. Horticultural research has focused on the development of propagation techniques and identification and selection of desirable chemotypes.

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Usha Palaniswamy and Zafar Bokhari

Zafi Beverages, Inc., envisioned energy drinks, mineral natural water, healthy drinks for kids, exotic drinks, flavored drinks, and cholesterol-reducing tea. Emphasis is on non-carbonation and the use of herbal extracts. Consumption of carbonated drinks can lead to reflux, ulcer, and other stomach problems. Zafi Beverages is also developing a unique marketing approach for its products, offering a niche for small businesses and entrepreneurs. Zafi's educational process of entrepreneurship also covers the steps on the road to success: innovative, value-creating, and growth-oriented. Emphasis is also placed on ethical marketing. Small businesses employ 53% of the total private nonfarm work force, contribute to 47% of all sales in the country, are responsible for 51% of the gross domestic product (GDP), produce about two out of every three new jobs each year, and account for over half of United States GDP. Studies report that 40% of the top 1% of the wealthiest Americans got there by building a small business. Interest in small business is increasing, because many Americans believe this is one of the best paths to riches in the United States. About 16 million Americans are in some type of part- or full-time entrepreneurial activity. Entrepreneurship is attractive to people of all ages. Some unique contributions of small business concepts promoted by Zafi Beverages are to encourage innovation and flexibility, maintain close relationships with customers and community, and provide employees with comprehensive learning experience, develop risk-takers, generate new employment, and provide greater job satisfaction. Zafi Beverages is 2 years old; its growth and challenges in the development of herbal drinks for health and new entrepreneurs are described.

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Keletso C. Mohale, Araya T. Hintsa, Machel A. Emanuel and Fhatuwani N. Mudau

Bush tea ( A. phylicoides DC.) is a South African indigenous and traditional herbal tea rich in secondary metabolites, which have therapeutic effects ( Padayachee, 2011 ), pharmacological properties ( McGaw et al., 2007 ), and different phenolic