are generally higher ranging from 90 to 255 mg·L −1 N applied daily with a 2:1:2 N:P:K ratio ( Bailey and Nelson, undated ). Although many herbaceousperennials have the same accelerated growth rate as annual plants, they also store nutrients in roots
containerized plants in a nursery or greenhouse setting ( Dubois et al., 2000 ; Hipp et al., 1988 ; Macz et al., 2001 ; Nau, 1996 ). Nau (1996) reported that rates for producing optimal growth of herbaceousperennial plants during production generally fell
studies have investigated the nutrient requirements of herbaceousperennials and the possibility of grouping them by their nutrient requirements during landscape establishment ( Proctor et al., 2004 ; Strother et al., 2002 ). Nitrogen recommendations for
Floriculture sales in the United States totaled $5.87 billion in 2014 [ U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), 2015 ], of which potted herbaceousperennials [excluding hardy/garden chrysanthemums ( Chrysanthemum × morifolium )] represented $742
which irrigation water does not come in contact with leaves.
A limited number of commonly grown herbaceousperennials have native distributions in saline environments and are thought to have some tolerance to salinity. For example, Leucanthemum
; Free et al., 2010 ; Graber et al., 2010 ; Van Zwieten et al., 2010 ; Vaughn et al., 2013 ), root length ( Free et al., 2010 ; Solaiman et al., 2012 ), or leaf area ( Graber at al., 2010 ; Paneque et al., 2016 ). Herbaceousperennial seedling dry
together when pulled from the plug tray ( Dole and Hamrick, 2006 ). The objective of this study is to evaluate the effects of the application of BA to herbaceousperennial plants during liner production, specifically during Stage 3, on root growth and shoot
://www.glplants.com/plants/3792-Verbena-bonariensis-Lollipop > Grossman, M. Freeborn, J. Scoggins, H. Latimer, J. 2011 Branching agents improve quality of herbaceousperennial liners. OFA Bulletin No. 930. p. 4–7. Nov./Dec. 2011 Haver, D.L. Schuch, U.K. 2001 Influence of root
To produce uniform plants, growers of herbaceousperennials control plant growth by using both cultural controls, including plant nutrition, light, and temperature, and chemical controls, i.e., PGRs ( Albrecht and Tayama, 1992 ; Whipker et al
Tolerance of transplanted black-eyed Susan (Rudbeckia hirta var. pulcherrima Farw.), lanceleaf coreopsis (Coreopsis lanceolata L.), shasta daisy (Chrysanthemum × superbum Bergmans ex. J. Ingram), purple coneflower [Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench.], and blanket flower (Gaillardia aristata Pursh) to preemergence herbicides was evaluated in container trials. Herbicides were applied at the maximum use rate and twice the maximum use rate. Dithiopyr, pendimethalin, and prodiamine provided excellent control of spotted. spurge (Euphorbia maculata L.) and yellow woodsorrel (Oxalis stricta L.) with little injury to the five herbaceous perennials. DCPA, oxadiazon, and metolachlor were tolerated by all treated species, but these chemicals provided lower control of one or both weed species. Oryzalin, isoxaben + trifluralin, and napropamide caused unacceptable injury and shoot fresh-weight reductions in some of the perennials at one or both application rates. Chemical names used: dimethyl 2,3,5,6-tetrachloro-1,4-benzenedicarboxylate (DCPA); S,S-dimethyl 2-(difluoromethyl) -4-(2 -methylpropyl)-6-trifluoromethyl-3,5-pyridinedicarbothioate(dithiopyr);N-[3-(1-ethyl-1-methylpropyl)-5-isoxazolyl]-2,6-dimethoxybenzamide(isoxaben); 2-chloro-N-(2-ethyl-6-methylphenyl)-N-(2-methoxy-1-methylethyl)acetamide(metolachlor);N,N-diethyl-2-(l-naphtha1enenyloxy) propanamide(napropamide);4-(dipropylamino)-3,5-dinitrobenzenesulfonamide (oryzalin);3-[2,4-dichloro-5-(1-methylethoxy)phenyl]-5-(1,1-dimethylethy1)-l,3,4-oxadiazol-2-(3H)-one (oxadiazon); N-(1-ethylpropyl) -3,4-dimethyl-2,6-dinitrobenzamine (pendimethalin); N,N-di-n-propyl-2,4-dinitro-6-(trifluoromethyl)-m-phenylenediamine (prodiamine); 2,6-dinitro-N,N-dipropyl-4-(trifluoromethyl)benzamine (trifluralin).