a very desirable property in cabbage ( Holt and Schoorl, 1983 ). Previous studies ( Liu et al., 2009 ; Zeng et al., 2009 ) about this trait mainly concentrated on cultivating conditions, physiological, cytological characters, and types of the head
Yanbin Su, Yumei Liu, Huolin Shen, Xingguo Xiao, Zhansheng Li, Zhiyuan Fang, Limei Yang, Mu Zhuang, and Yangyong Zhang
Allan F. Brown, Elizabeth H. Jeffery, and John A. Juvik
these regions included both SSR and SRAP markers. Fig. 1. Genetic linkage map of broccoli and quantitative trait loci associated with maturity and head weight. Identification of quantitative trait loci associated with maturity and
T.J.K. Radovich*, M.D. Kleinhenz, J.G. Streeter, and M.A. Bennett
Cabbage (cv. Bravo) was grown in 2002 and 2003 at The Ohio State Univ., Ohio Agricultural Research and development Center in Wooster, Ohio. The four irrigation treatments, arranged in a RCB design, were: 1) irrigation throughout development [no stress (NS)], 2) irrigation only during head development [frame stress (FS)], 3) irrigation only during frame development [head stress (HS)], and 4) no irrigation [frame and head stress (FHS)]. Irrigation timing relative to crop stage significantly affected all head characteristics except density, with the greatest differences between cabbage receiving irrigation during head development (NS, FS) and cabbage not irrigated during head development (FHS, HS). On average, heads from NS and FS plots were heavier (38%), larger (15%), less pointed and had less volume occupied by the core than heads from HS and FHS plots. Combined head fructose and glucose concentrations were significantly greater in cabbage receiving irrigation during head development than in cabbage not irrigated during head development (47% vs. 41% dwt, respectively). Sucrose concentrations were significantly greater in cabbage not irrigated during head development than cabbage receiving irrigation during head development (8% vs. 6% dwt, respectively). The higher ratio of sucrose: fructose+glucose observed in HS and FHS relative to NS and FS treatments was interpreted as an osmo-regulatory response with potential implications for cabbage flavor. Overall, it was concluded that physiological responses elicited in cabbage by differential irrigation can affect important head traits, and that targeted applications of water during specific stages of crop development may be utilized to maximize water use efficiency and crop quality.
Matthew D. Kleinhenz and Annette Wszelaki
Yield and relationships among head traits were recorded in order to better understand the effects of planting date and cultivar selection on crop quality characteristics and to help increase the efficiency of cultivar development, evaluation, and selection. A total of seven cultivars of fresh market-type cabbage (Brassica oleracea L., Capitata Group) were planted in May and June of 1999 and 2000 at the OARDC Vegetable Crops Research Branch in Fremont, Ohio. Total and marketable yield, head traits (e.g., size, weight, density), and core dimensions were recorded at harvest. Main effects of year (Y), planting date (PD), and cultivar (C) and the Y × C interaction significantly affected seven to 10 of 10 head and core traits. However, the PD × C interaction was significant for head density, the ratio of head polar and equatorial diameter, and core base width. The Y × PD interaction was significant for six of 10 head and core traits. May planting tended to result in greater yield and larger, heavier heads with greater polar/equatorial diameter values relative to June planting. However, head density was unaffected by planting date. The number of head and core traits affected by planting date differed among cultivars. For example, six of 10 head and core traits were significantly affected by planting date in `Cheers' and `DPSX315' while one trait was affected by planting date in `SuperElite Hybrid'. The weight of numerous, individual, market-ready, trimmed heads showed a strong (avg. R 2 value = 0.92) quadratic relationship to average head diameter. These data suggest that large-scale germplasm evaluations may benefit by including multiple plantings, as head weight, volume, diameter, and shape were affected by planting date, possibly due to variation in temperature and rainfall patterns. The data also suggest that routine measurement of numerous head traits in the same evaluations may be unnecessary, as selected traits (e.g., diameter and weight, head volume, and core volume) were strongly related.
Annette Wszelaki and Matthew D. Kleinhenz
This is the second of two related reports dealing with the effects of cultivar × environment interactions on cabbage (Brassica oleracea L., Capitata Group) crop traits. This study examined planting date and cultivar effects on physical head traits of processing cabbage and compared these findings to those from a similar study of fresh market cabbage. Six cultivars of processing cabbage were planted in May and June-July of 1999 and 2000 at the OARDC Vegetable Crops Research Branch in Fremont, Ohio. Marketable yield for each crop was determined, and measurements were taken of head weight, diameter, density, and volume, and core length, base width, and volume on more than 450 individual heads. Head and core volume and head density were calculated from these direct measures. Year, planting date, and cultivar significantly affected the majority of head traits. May planting led to higher marketable yield and heavier heads with larger diameters than June-July planting. The most variable trait across cultivars was head volume, which was affected by planting date in all cultivars. Differences between processing and fresh market cabbage were found. Average head polar/equatorial diameter values were affected by planting date in the fresh market but not the processing study. In contrast, head density and core volume as a percent of head volume were affected by planting date in the processing but not the fresh market study.
Zachary Stansell, Thomas Björkman, Sandra Branham, David Couillard, and Mark W. Farnham
ready (e.g., with enough heads at the crown cut stage), ten traits, including plot uniformity, head shape, head smoothness or uniformity, head color, head firmness, head extension, bead size, bead uniformity, overall quality, and holding ability were
Sylvie Jenni, David de Koeyer, and George Emery
progenies, head density decreased with greater stem length ( P < 0.0001), producing large and commercially undesirable fluffy heads. Table 4. Phenotypic correlations among six traits measured on 800 individual crisphead lettuce heads of the parents
Mark W. Farnham and Dean A. Kopsell
expressed in harvested heads; and to examine phenotypic correlations between carotenoid levels and other horticultural traits. Because Chl a and b can be measured simultaneously using techniques to assess carotenoids and because there is some recent evidence
Abbas Lafta, Germán Sandoya, and Beiquan Mou
June 2012. This is the environment with the highest mean head weight and better traits such as shorter CL, higher HW/CL ratio, larger diameter, perfect market maturity, and little bolting or tipburn. Although the experiment was planted in June, the
Yi-Chen Chen, Wei-Chun Chang, San-Tai Wang, and Shu-I Lin
whether the tube-grafting method could be applied to cabbage. Second, we identified the best healing conditions for the grafted cabbage for future commercial production. Last, we determined the effects of grafting on cabbage head traits. Materials and