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pesticides. Three of the fine fescue species most widely used for turfgrass areas are strong creeping red fescue ( F. rubra L. subsp. rubra ), Chewing’s fescue [ F. rubra L. subsp. fallax (Thuill.) Nyman], and hard fescue ( F. brevipilia Tracey). Strong

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Stand establishment of direct-seeded hard fescue (Festuca longifolia) is slow. Sodding could speed establishment in landscape plantings. This study looked at the effects of two sod thicknesses and different rates of nitrogen fertilization before and after sodding, on stand establishment and overall turf quality. Evaluations 2, 4 and 8 weeks after sodding assessed rooting and overall turf quality. Thicker sod showed better rooting 4 weeks after planting; after 8 weeks, rooting of both thicknesses was similar. Nitrogen fertilization before or after sodding did not affect rooting. More nitrogen led to better overall turf quality up to 4 weeks after planting; however, this quality difference disappeared 8 weeks after sodding.

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Current demands for diverse, natural, and locally produced beverages have resulted in the reappearance of hard apple ( Malus × domestica ) ciders in food markets, restaurants, and bars. In 2018, revenues from hard cider, perry [fermented pear

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fescue ( F. rubra L. ssp. rubra Gaudin), slender creeping red fescue [ F. rubra L. ssp. littoralis (G. Mey.) Auquier], Chewings fescue ( F. rubra L. ssp. commutata ), hard fescue ( F. brevipila ), and sheep fescue ( F. ovina L.) ( Braun et al

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Hard cider production has increased dramatically in the United States in recent years with an annualized growth rate of 50% between 2009 and 2014 and revenues totaling $292.5 million in 2014 ( Petrillo, 2014 ). The growth of the industry has been

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Hard cider is an alcoholic beverage produced from fermented apple juice or apple juice concentrate. Domestic cider consumption has increased more than 850% in the last 5 years and there are now over 550 cider producers in the United States ( TTB

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juice, also frequently referred to as hard cider) industry, cider apples are mostly harvested mechanically ( Merwin et al., 2008 ). In the United States, the production of cider has increased over 10-fold in size since 2005 ( Brager and Crompton, 2017

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In the United States, both fresh and fermented apple juice may be called “apple cider,” but “cider” here refers to the alcoholic, fermented “hard” cider product. Food safety considerations regarding apple juice or “sweet cider,” the nonalcoholic

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forage plant for bees; that is, a flower that provides floral nectar or pollen for bee pollinators. Hard fescue ( Festuca brevipila ) was chosen as the companion turf species for its slow growth habit and low water and fertilizer input needs along with

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Hard-to-cook and hard-shell are two textural defects associated with storage of legumes, as typified by the common bean. These defects can lead to failure to germinate, extended cooking times, reduced nutritional value, and economic loss throughout the food chain. Although these losses are predominate in tropical climates, beans stored in temperate areas also will harden eventually, depending on temperature and humidity. Hardened beans also often darken, causing further quality losses. Structurally, hard-shell is associated with the seedcoat and failure of water absorption, while hard-to-cook affects the cotyledons, rendering the cells unable to separate during cooking. Hardening of seedcoats during storage has been reported, and a mechanism based on oxidation and polymerization of phenolic compounds is suspected as being responsible, but few details of the hard-shell defect are known. The traditional theory used to explain the hard-to-cook defect is based on enzymatic hydrolysis of phytate, rendering it unable to chelate divalent cations that then migrate to the middle lamella and participate in crosslinking reactions with demethylated pectins. More recent evidence points to a multiple mechanism of bean hardening, with metabolism of phenolic compounds and membrane deterioration also involved. Control of bean hardening has been attempted at all levels of bean production, processing, and consumption. At present, control of storage conditions, manipulation of agronomic factors, and improved cooking techniques seem to be the best strategies to reduce bean hardening.

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