compatibility ( Blechert and Debener, 2005 ; Byrne and Crane, 2003 ; Cairns, 2000 ; Jian et al., 2010 ; Spiller et al., 2011 ; Ueckert et al., 2015 ; Zlesak, 2009 ), and a broad diversity of flower and plant growth habits. Zuzek et al. (1995) described
Xuan Wu, Shuyin Liang, and David H. Byrne
Kevin E. Kenworthy, Dennis L. Martin, and Charles M. Taliaferro
greater in density but more upright in growth habit compared with ‘Tifway’, the industry standard triploid (2n = 3x = 27) interspecific F 1 hybrid. If African bermudagrass plants could be identified with a more prostrate growth habit, it may be possible
Huan-Keng Lin, Tzu-Yao Wei, Chin-Mu Chen, and Der-Ming Yeh
growth habit, although trailing cultivars are desirable as they have increased their utility as ornamental plants for uses in hanging baskets and mixed containers, and as groundcover in the landscape. Trailing habits can be related to less or gradual loss
Khin Thida One, Narathid Muakrong, Chamnanr Phetcharat, Patcharin Tanya, and Peerasak Srinives
recorded ( Fig. 1 ). Fig. 1. Nine growth habits of 1-year-old F 2 plants from an interspecific cross between Jatropha curcas and dwarf Jatropha integerrima observed in dry season 2011, ( A ) tall-spreading, ( B ) tall-upright, ( C ) tall-erect, ( D
Yonatan Elkind, Arie Gurnick, and Nachum Kedar
The objective of this study was to elucidate the genetic control of the semideterminate growth habit in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.). A semideterminate tomato line was crossed with determinate and indeterminate lines; their F1, F2, and backcrosses were grown; and the growth habit recorded and analyzed. Plants with six or more inflorescences on the main stem were defined as semideterminate, while those with fewer were defined as determinate. The F2 and backcross to determinate were bimodal, indicating a single recessive gene for semideterminate, which was denoted as sdt. The goodness-of-fit chi square for a single recessive gene model was 88% and 69% for F2 and backcross generations, respectively. In the cross between semideterminate and indeterminate types, the results indicated control by two genes, sp and sdt, with the sp+ indeterminate type epistatic over semideterminate. The goodness-of-fit to this model was 70% and 82% for F2 and backcross generations, respectively.
Richard H. Ozminkowski Jr., Randolph G. Gardner, Robert H. Moll, and Warren R. Henderson
Prostrate growth habit (PGH) in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) lines derived from breeding material developed at the Agriculture Canada Research Station, Beaverlodge, Alberta, was the subject of a quantitative inheritance study. Plants with PGH have an increased lateral branch angle, relative to upright plants, and crown-set fruit supported above the soil surface making hand harvest easier. Genetic parameters were estimated in two families (20G and 53G), each containing PGH and upright-habit parental lines, F1, F2, and backcrosses to each parent. Field-grown plants were subjectively rated twice during the growing season. Broad-sense heritability of PGH in family 20G was estimated to be 0.65 and 0.71 for ratings of plant growth habit 6 and 9 weeks after transplanting, respectively, and 0.71 and 0.68 for those of family 53G. Narrow-sense heritability was estimated to be 0.83 and 1.05 for the two ratings in the 20G family and 0.77 and 0.78 in the 53G family. F1 and F2 means were not different from mid-parent values. The genetic variance was entirely additive and expression was influenced by the environment. The data did not support the hypothesis that PGH was controlled by a single gene.
Suzanne P. Stone, George E. Boyhan, and W. Carroll Johnson III
available. We hypothesized that short-internode plants, which have a compact growth habit, are well-suited for weed management in an organic system. Compact plants develop a denser leaf canopy that may shade competing weeds. Nonsprawling vines may be easier
Aline Coelho Frasca, Monica Ozores-Hampton, John Scott, and Eugene McAvoy
growth habit that require staking, tying, pruning, and manual harvest. These cultural practices account for as much as 55% of the total tomato production cost ( Davis and Estes, 1993 ), estimated at $34,595·ha −1 (G. McAvoy, personal communication
Dongyan Hu and Ralph Scorza
(‘SD22–59’) resembled the ‘A72’ dwarf and the segregation of growth habits in progeny of ‘SD22–59’ × standard growth habit varieties (1 semidwarf:1 standard growth) was also suggestive of the phenotype produced by the ‘A72’ mutation. To our knowledge
Dale E. Kester and Thos. Gradziel
Almond (Prunus dulcis MIll) and peach (Prunus persica L.) are closely related species with many genetic traits in common. Variation in growth habit shows a consistent pattern among populations of peach, almond and their hybrid offspring. From this material a system of growth habit traits has been identified based upon genetically controlled processes of vegetative shoot elongation and flower bud initiation. All flowers are produced from lateral buds. The classification proposed for their characterization includes:
Class I. Growth from terminal buds on one year old shoots (six morphological groups),
Class II. Growth produced from lateral buds on 1-year old shoots (three morphological groups),
Class III. Combinations of Class I and II These classes cover the entire range of peach and almond phenotypes and probably all Prunus. Class I is precocious and produces flowers by the second year from growth initiation. Class II plants do not produce flowers until the third year. Expression is enhanced by increase in vigor.