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Central and South America ( Köberl et al., 2017 ; Li and Fang, 2008 ; Li et al., 2019 ). This industry ranks second among the dominant fruit industries in south and southwest China, and has a key role in promoting rural economic growth and revitalization

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Water deficit is one of the main constraints affecting plant growth and crop yield in arid, semiarid, and even in humid areas, causing the fatal economic losses in agriculture ( Marulanda et al., 2009 ; Sandhya et al., 2010 ). Drought has been

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improve the growth and yield of agricultural and horticultural species ( Brown et al., 2003 ), although it is necessary to dilute the concentration of the smoke-water before application to many species ( Lloyd et al., 2000 ). The main active germination

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freezes, can negatively impact crop establishment, growth, as well as flowering time and duration for sensitive cultivars ( Trehane 1998 ). Additionally, severe frost during flowering can damage buds and flowers, resulting in a shortened bloom period or

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species respond to shade in cultivation, both in terms of growth rates and ornamental value, can greatly affect the commercial production of those species for the horticulture industry. The objective of this study was to investigate the responses in

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Abstract

Twenty-six cultivars of chrysanthemum (Chrusanthemum morifolium Ramat.) of the standard, pot-, or spray- type were grown in greenhouses at an 8 hour short-day and a night temperature of either 15.S°C, or a split temperature of 15.5° from 1600 until 2400 and 10° from 2400 until 0800, The day temperature was kept at 22° on sunny and 18° on cloudy days. Additional light (about 3000 lx) was provided for one half of the plants in each temperature treatment on cloudy days. Good chrysanthemums were produced under all conditions with all cultivars with but a minor delay (about 3 days) at the split high-low night temperatures. The plants were taller when grown at the split cool rather than the normal night temperature. The number and size of flowers were not affected significantly by the temperature treatments. Additional light increased stem length and increased the number of flowers of the spray-, and pot-type chrysanthemums. In the growth and production of greenhouse-grown chrysanthemums the split, cool temperature treatments provide energy savings without a noticeable change in growth and quality of plants.

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Rapid population increases, economic growth, and urbanization have led to excessive usage of fresh water globally, resulting in decreased water availability per capita in most developing countries ( Asghar et al., 2019 ). In South Africa

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Light is one of the most important environmental factors regulating plant growth, development, and photosynthesis ( Claypool and Lieth, 2020 ; Ouzounis et al., 2015 ). Lighting-emitting diodes (LEDs) are regarded as the most effective light source

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Salinity stress can severely inhibit plant growth and development. The adverse effects of salinity stress on plants are generally imposed through osmotic stress by limiting water uptake and excessive uptake of sodium (Na + ) ions ( Munns and Tester

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et al., 2007 ). Numerous studies have shown that CO 2 enrichment can increase growth, affect physiology, and increase both yield and quality in tomatoes ( Mamatha et al., 2014 ; Nilsen et al., 1983 ; Yelle et al., 1990 ). Atmospheric CO 2

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