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will allow for efficient Sedum plant production to meet the increasing industry demand. Growing substrate pH influences plant growth and performance, and different plant species have optimal substrate pH ranges that are unique ( Reed, 1996

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., 2014 ; Dolores Perez-Murcia et al., 2005 ; Jeong et al., 2011 ; Lopez et al., 1998 ; Taylor and Nelson, 2007 ; Wilson et al., 2001 ). The pH buffering capacity of growing substrates may be affected when different materials, such as lime and

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research focusing on organic production because there is little technical information available for this sector ( Peet et al., 2004 ; Rippy et al., 2004 ). An optimum quality growing substrate is one of the most important components involved in successful

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). High nutrient status in growing substrates can result in high levels of nutrient leaching to the environment. Most commonly, nutrients are provided during container nursery crop production in Ontario, Canada, and throughout North America through the

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chip residual-based substrates. z Recent studies in the U.S. on the effect of growing crops in substrates composed of high percentages of wood fiber have indicated similar properties to CCR. Wright and Browder (2005) demonstrated that with proper

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Newly transplanted container-grown landscape plants are reported to require very frequent irrigation. However, container nurseries in the U.S. commonly use growing substrates that are mostly bark, even though the contribution of bark-based growing substrates to water relations of transplanted root balls is unknown. Therefore, a field experiment was undertaken to determine water relations of a pine-bark substrate (container removed) within a drying mineral soil over a three week period. A range of common production container sizes—3.7 L (#1), 7.5 L (#2), 21.9 L (#7), 50.6 L (#15), and 104.5 L (#25)—was used. The fraction of substrate volume that is water [total volumetric water (TVW)] within the top and middle zones of substrate was compared to TVW at corresponding depths of adjacent mineral soil. The fraction of substrate and soil volume that is plant-available water [plant-available volumetric water (PAVW)] was calculated by subtracting the fraction of substrate or soil volume below where water is unavailable to most plants (measured with pressure plates) [plant-unavailable volumetric water (PUVW)] from each TVW measurement. The pine-bark substrate had a PUVW of 0.32 compared to a PUVW of 0.06 for soil. Top sections of substrate dried to near zero PAVW 6 days after irrigation for all containers. Larger container sizes maintained higher PAVW in middle sections than smaller container sizes, and PAVW was always higher in the adjacent soil than in the embedded substrate. Overall, very little PAVW is held by the embedded pine-bark growing substrate, suggesting the need for container substrates with greater water retention once transplanted to mineral soils.

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With the rising cost of sphagnum peat, nurserymen are looking at alternatives for growing substrates. Daddy Pete's plant pleaser is a product of composted cow manure. This study was conducted to see if composted cow manure could be used to grow containerized plants and replace sphagnum peat. Research was conducted using two Rhododendron cultivars, `English Roseum' and `Scintillation'. Plants of each cultivar were potted into 3-gallon containers. Test substrates were tested against the grower's standard mix, 80 pine bark: 20 sphagnum peat (% by volume), amended with 20 lbs Scotts Prokoke, 8 lbs dolomitic limestone, and 1.5 lbs step minor element package/1.7 yard3. Test substrates were treated equally. Daddy Pete's plant pleaser can work as a substitute for peatmoss in a growing mix. The Daddy Pete compost grew just as good a plant as the Buds & Bloom standard. Watering management turns out to be a factor because the compost generally held more water, therefore not needing irrigation as frequently.

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In this study, areca palm (Dypsis lutescens), crossandra (Crossandra infundibuliformis), pentas (Pentas lanceolat), and philodendron (Philodendron) `Hope' plants were transplanted into containers filled with four growing substrates and watered daily, every 2 days, or every 3 days using subirrigation or overhead irrigation. Plants were grown in either a pine bark/sedge peat/sand substrate (BSS), Metro-mix 500 (MM), Pro-mix GSX (PM), or a 60% biosolid substrate (SYT). For both irrigation systems, final shoot dry weight of pentas, crossandra, philodendron, and areca palm plants in each substrate was greatest for plants watered every day and least for plants watered every 3 days. At all three irrigation frequencies, pentas, crossandra, and philodendron shoot dry weight in subirrigated pots filled with PM was greater than in overhead watered pots filled with PM. PM had the highest total pore space and moisture content of the four substrates examined. There was no difference in pentas, crossandra, or philodendron shoot dry weight between the irrigation systems, at all three irrigation frequencies, when plants were grown in BSS, MM, or SYT. However, for all four substrates and at all three irrigation frequencies, areca palm shoot dry weight was greater in overhead watered pots than in subirrigated pots. The final substrate electrical conductivity (EC) in all four subirrigated palm substrates was more than double the concentrations in overhead watered palm substrates. In this study, largest pentas, crossandra, and philodendron plants were grown in pots filled with PM and subirrigated daily, while largest areca palm plants were grown in pots filled with MM or SYT and watered overhead daily.

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should be optimized. This study thus investigated the effects of the growing substrate, mode of nutrient supply, and corm size on flowering, growth, photosynthesis, and cormlet production of saffron in a hydroponic system under a controlled environment

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Vegetated roofs, or green roofs, are multilayered systems containing plant and substrate materials. Green roof substrates are not similar to field soils, but have characteristics in common with shallow-drained soils and/or greenhouse container

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